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UliilnrC 3Piske 

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Cornell Universe Library 
CS2505.W39 B7 1914 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

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Those interested in the curiosities of lan- 
guage will find a veritable feast in this volume. 

The book is popular in the best sense : that 
is to say, Mr. Weekley does not presuppose 
any profound knowledge of language in his 
readers, and he is contented to surprise, in- 
terest, and amuse without attempting to draw 
a moral or bother one with theorizing. 

"A scholarly, yet diverting book," — "A 
very fascinating book," — " More fascinating 
than a novel," — "A really delightful book," 
are among the nany compliments paid ' ' THE 
ROMANCE OF WORDS" by the reviewers. 











'S . "2-\^ ?oo 


The interpretation of personal names has always had 
an attraction for the learned and others, but" the first 
attempts to classify and explain our English surnames 
date, so far as my knowledge goes, from 1605. In that 
year Verstegan published his Restitution of Decayed 
Intelligence, which contains chapters on both font- 
names and surnames, and about the same time ap- 
peared Camden' s Remains Concerning Britain, in which 
the same subjects are treated much more fully. Both 
of these learned antiquaries make excellent reading, 
and much curious information may be gleaned from 
their pages, especially those of Camden, whose position 
as Clarencieux King-at-Arms gave him exceptional 
opportunities for genealogical research. From the 
philological point of view they are of course untrust- 
worthy, though less so than most modern writers on 
the same subject. 

About the middle of the nineteenth century, the 
period of Archbishop Trench and Canon Taylor, began a 
kind of boom in works of this kind, and books on sur- 
names are now numerous. But of all these industrious 
compilers one only, Bardsley, can be taken seriously. 
His Dictionary of English Surnames, published (Oxford 
Press, 1901) from his notes some years after his death, 
is invaluable to students. It represents the results of 


twenty years' conscientious research among early rolls 
and registers, the explanations given being usually sup- 
ported by medieval instances. But it cannot be used 
uncritically, for the author does not appear to have 
been either a linguist or a philologist, and, although he 
usually refrains from etymological conjecture, he occa- 
sionally ventures with disastrous results. Thus, to take 
a few instances, he identifies Prust with Priest, but the 
medieval le prust is quite obviously the Norman form 
of Old Fr. le proust, the provost. He attempts to 
connect Pullen with the archaic Eng. pullen, poultry ; 
but his early examples, le pulein, polayn, etc., are of 
course Fr. Poulain, i.e. Colt. Under Fallows, explained 
as " fallow lands," he quotes three examples of de la 
faleyse, i.e. Fr. Falaise, corresponding to our Cliff, 
Cleeve, etc. ; Pochin, explained as the diminutive of 
some personal name, is the Norman form of the famous 
name Poussin, i.e. Chick. Or, coming to native in- 
stances, le wenchel, a medieval prototype of Winkle, is 
explained as for " periwinkle," whereas it is a common 
Middle-English word, originally a diminutive of 
wench, and means Child. The obsolete Swordslipper, 
now only Slipper, which he interprets as a maker of 
" sword-slips," orsheaths, was really a sword-sharpener, 
from Mid. Eng. slipen, cognate with Old Du. slijpen, 
to polish, sharpen, and Ger. schleifen. Sometimes a very 
simple problem is left unexplained, e.g. in the case of 
the name Tyas, where the medieval instances of le 
tyeis are to a student of Old French clearly le tieis or 
tiois, i.e. the German, cognate with Ger. deutsch and 
Ital. tedesco. 

These examples are quoted, not in depreciation of 
a conscientious student to whose work my own com- 
pilation is greatly indebted, but merely to show that 



the etymological study of surnames has scarcely been 
touched at present, except by writers to whom philo- 
logy is an unknown science. I have inserted, as a 
specimen problem (ch. xvi.), a little disquisition on the 
name Rutter, a cursory perusal of which will convince 
most readers that it is not much use making shots in 
this subject. 

My aim has been to steer a clear course between a too 
learned and a too superficial treatment, and rather to 
show how surnames are formed than to adduce in- 
numerable examples which the reader should be able 
to solve for himself. I have made no attempt to collect 
curious names, but have taken those which occur in 
the London Directory (1908) or have caught my eye in 
the newspaper or the streets. To go into proofs would 
have swelled the book beyond all reasonable propor- 
tions, but the reader may assume that, in the case of 
any derivation not expressly stated as a conjecture, 
the connecting links exist. In the various classes of 
names, I have intentionally omitted all that is obvious, 
except in the rather frequent case of the obvious being 
wrong. The index, which I have tried to make com- 
plete, is intended to replace to some extent those cross- 
references which are useful to students but irritating 
to the general reader. Hundreds of names are sus- 
ceptible of two, three, or more explanations, and I 
do not profess to be exhaustive. 

The subject-matter is divided into a number of rather 
short chapters, dealing with the various classes and 
subdivisions into which surnames fall ; but the 
natural association which exists between names has 
often prevailed over rigid classification. The quota- 
tions by which obsolete words are illustrated are 
taken as far as possible from Chaucer, whose writings 


date from the very period when our surnames were 
gradually becoming hereditary. I have also quoted 
extensively from the Promptorium Parvulorum, our 
earliest English-Latin Dictionary (1440). 

In ch. vii, on Anglo-Saxon names, I have ob- 
tained some help from a paper by the late Professor 
Skeat (Transactions of the Philological Society, 1907-10, 
pp. 57-85) and from the materials contained in 
Searle's valuable Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum (Cam- 
bridge, 1897). Among several works which I have con- 
sulted on French and German family names, the most 
useful have been Heintze's Deutsche Familiennamen, 
3rd ed. (Halle a. S., 1908) and Kremers' Beitrdge zur 
Erforschung der franzosischen Familiennamen (Bonn, 
1910). The comparative method which I have adopted, 
especially in explaining nicknames (ch. xxi), will be 
found, I think, to clear up a good many dark points. 
Of books on names published in this country, only 
Bardsley's Dictionary has been of any considerable 
assistance, though I have gleaned some scraps of infor- 
mation here and there from other compilations. My 
real sources have been the lists of medieval names 
found in Domesday Book, the Pipe Rolls, the Hundred 
Rolls, and in the numerous historical records piiblished 
by the Government and by various antiquarian 

Ernest Weekley. 


September 191 3. 
























METRONYMICS. . . .... 92 






THE HAUNTS OF MAN ..... 120 



























INDEX 231 

The following dictionaries are quoted without further refer- 
ence : 

Promptorium Parvulorum (1440), ed. Mayhew (E.E.T.S., 

Palsgrave, L'Esclarcissement de la langue francoyse (1530), 

ed. Genin (Paris, 1852). 
Cooper, Thesaurus Lingucs Romanes et Britannicts (London, 


Cotgrave, A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues 
(London, 161 1). 

The Middle English quotations, except where otherwise 
stated, are from Chaucer, the references being to the Globe 

The Author has in preparation a comprehensive 
Dictionary of English Surnames and would be 
glad to receive contributions from readers interested 
in the subject. 

Information is especially desired on — 

(i) Existence and locality of unusual names 
or unusual variants of familiar names ; 

(ii) Survival of names which might be sup- 
posed to be extinct ; 

(iii) Medieval records which appear likely to 
throw light on modern forms. 

It will be a convenience if such contributions are 
written, as concisely as possible, on one side of 
the paper only, and forwarded to MISS WEEKLEY, 
49, Harvard Road, Chiswick, W. 




" The French and we termed them Surnames, not because they 
are the names of the Sire, or the father, but because they are super- 
added to Christian names." 

(Camden, Remains concerning Britain.) 

The study of the origin of family names is at the 
same time quite simple and very difficult. Its sim- 
plicity consists in the fact that surnames can only 
come into existence in certain well-understood ways. 
Its difficulty is due to the extraordinary perversions 
which names undergo in common speech, to the ortho- 
graphic uncertainty of our ancestors, to the frequent 
coalescence of two or more names of quite different 
origin, and to the multitudinous forms which one 
single name can assume, such forms being due to 
local pronunciation, accidents of spelling, date of 
assumption, and many minor causes. It must always 
be remembered that the majority of our surnames 
come from the various dialects of Middle English, i.e. 
of a language very different from our own in spelling 

2 I 


and sound, full of words that are now obsolete, and 
of others which have completely changed their form 
and meaning. 

If we take any medieval roll of names, we see al- 
most at a glance that four such individuals as — 

John filius Simon 
William de la Moor 
Richard le Spicer 
Robert le Long 

exhaust the possibilities of English name-making — i.e. 
that every surname must be (i) personal, from a sire 
or ancestor, (ii) local, from place of residence, 1 (iii) 
occupative, from trade or office, (iv) a nickname, from 
bodily attributes, character; etc. 

This can easily be illustrated from any list of names 
taken at random. The Rugby team chosen to represent 
the East Midlands against Kent (January 22, 1913) 
consisted of the following fifteen names: Hancock; 
Mobbs, Poulton, Hudson, Cook ; Watson, Earl ; Bull, 
Muddiman, Collins, Tebbitt, Lacey, Hall, Osborne, 
Manton. Some of these are simple, but others require 
a little knowledge for their explanation. There are 
seven personal names, and the first of these, Hancock, 
is rather a problem. This is usually explained as 
from Flemish Hanke, Johnny, while the origin of the 
suffix -cock has never been very clearly accounted for 
(see p. 65). With Hancock we may compare Hankin. 

1 This is by far the largest class, counting by names, not indi- 
viduals, and many names for which I give another explanation 
have also a. local origin. Thus, when I say that Ely is Old Fr. 
Elie, i.e. Elias, I assume that the reader will know without being 
told that it must have an alternative explanation from Ely in 


But, while the Flemish derivation is possible for 
these two names, it will not explain Hanson, 1 which 
sometimes becomes Hansom (p. 36). According to 
Camden, there is evidence that Han was also used 
as a rimed form of Ran, short for Ranolf and Randolf 
(cf . Hob from Robert, Hick from Richard), very popular 
names in the north during the surname period. In 
Hankin and Hancock this Han would naturally coalesce 
with the Flemish Hanke, This would also explain the 
names Hand for Rand, and Hands, Hance for Rands, 
Ranee. Mobbs is the same as Mabbs (cf. Moggy for 
Maggy), and Mabbs is the genitive of Mab, i.e. Mabel, 
for Amabel. We have the diminutive in Mappin and 
the patronymic in Mapleson. Hudson is the son of 
Hud, a very common medieval name, which seems to 
represent Anglo-Saxon Hudda (p. 75), though there 
is some evidence that it was also used for Richard. 
Watson is the son of Wat, i.e. Walter, from theOld N.E. 
Fr. Wautier (Gautier), regularly pronounced Water at 
one time — 

" My name is Walter Whitmore. 
How now ! Why start'st thou ? What ! doth death affright ? 

Suffolk. Thy name affrights me, in whose sound is death. 
A cunning man did calculate my birth, 
And told me that by water I should die." 

(2 Henry VI, iv. 1.) 

Hence the name Waters, which has not usually any 
connection with water ; while Waterman, though some- 
times occupative, is also formed from Walter, like 
Hickman from Hick (see p. 64). Collins is from Colin, 
a French diminutive of Col, i.e. Nicol or Nicolas. 

1 The existence of such place-names as Hanbury, Hanley, Hanwell, 
Hanworth, Handsworth, etc., precludes a purely Flemish origin for 


Tebbitt is a diminutive of Theobald, a favourite medieval 
name which had the shortened forms Teb, Tib, Tub, 
whence a number of derivatives. But names in Teb- 
and Tib- may also come from Isabel (p. 94)- Osborne 
is the Anglo-Saxon name Osbeorn. 

Of course, each of these personal names has a 
meaning, e.g. Amabel, ultimately Latin, means lovable, 
and Walter, a Germanic name, means "rule army" 
(Modern Ger. walten and Heer), but the discussion of 
such meanings lies outside our subject. It is, in fact, 
sometimes difficult to distinguish between the personal 
name and the nickname. Thus Pagan, whence Payn, 
with its diminutives Pannell, Pennell, etc., Gold, Good, 
German, whence Jermyn, Jarman, and many other 
apparent nicknames, occur as personal names in the 
earliest records. Their etymological origin is in any 
case the same as if they were nicknames. 

Ta return to our football team, Poulton, Lacey, Hall, 
and Manton are local. There are several villages in 
Cheshire and Lancashire named Poulton, i.e. the town 
or homestead (p. 123) by the pool. Lacey occurs in 
Domesday Book as de Laci, from some small spot in 
Normandy, probably the hamlet of Lassy (Calvados). 
Hall is due to residence near the great house of the 
neighbourhood. If Hall's ancestor's name had chanced 
to be put down in Anglo-French as de la sale, he might 
now be known as Sale, or even as Saul. Manton is 
the name of places in Lincolnshire and Northampton- 
shire, so that this player, at any rate, has an ancestral 
qualification for the East Midlands. 

The only true occupative name in the list is Cook, for 
Earl is a nickname. Cook was perhaps the last occu- 
pative title to hold its own against the inherited name. 
Justice Shallow, welcoming Sir John Falstaff, says— -r 


" Some pigeons, Davy ; a couple of short-legged hens, a joint 
of mutton, and any pretty little tiny kickshaws. Tell William 
Cook " (2 Henry IV, v. i.). 

And students of the Ingoldsby Legends will remember 

"Ellen Bean ruled his cuisine. — He called her Nelly Cook." 

(Nell Cook, 1. 33.) 

There are probably a goodly number of housewives 
of the present day who would be at a loss if suddenly 
asked for ' ' cook's ' ' name in full .• It may be noted that 
Lequeux means exactly the same, and is of identical 
origin, archaic Fr. le queux, Lat. coquus, while Kew is 
sometimes for Anglo-Fr. le keu, where keu is the ac- 
cusative of queux (see p. 9, n.). 

The nicknames are Earl, Bull, and Muddiman. 
Nicknames such as Earl may have been acquired in 
various ways (see p. 144). Bull and Muddiman are 
singularly appropriate for Rugby scrummagers, though 
the first may be from an inn or shop sign, rather than 
from physique or character. It is equivalent to 
Thoreau, Old Fr. toreau (taureau). Muddiman is for 
Moodyman, where moody has its older meaning of 
valiant ; cf . its German cognate mutig. The weather 
on the day in question gave a certain fitness both to 
the original meaning and the later form. 

The above names are, with the exception of Hancock, 
Hudson, and ' Muddiman, easy to solve ; but it must 
not be concluded that every list is as simple, or that 
the obvious is always right. The first page of Bards- 
ley's Dictionary of Surnames might well serve as a 
danger-signal to cocksure writers on this subject. 
The names Abbey and Abbott would naturally seem 
to go back to an ancestor who lived in or near an 
abbey, and to another who had been nicknamed the 


abbot. But Abbey is usually from the Anglo-French 
entry le abbe, the abbot, and Abbott is often a 
diminutive of Ab, standing for Abel, or Abraham, the 
first of which was a favourite medieval font-name. 
Francis Holyoak describes himself on the title-page 
of his Latin Dictionary (1612) as Franciscus de Sacra 
Quercu, but his name comes from the holly oak, or 
holm oak (see p. 118). On the other hand, Holliman 
generally occurs in early rolls as halt or holi man, 
i.e. holy man. * 

It may be stated here, once for all, that etymolo- 
gies of names which are based on medieval latiniza- 
tions, family mottoes, etc., are always to be regarded 
with suspicion, as they involve the reversing of chrono- 
logy, or the explanation of a name by a pun which has 
been made from it. We find Lilbume latinized as de 
insula fontis, as though it were the impossible hybrid 
de I'isle burn, and Beaufoy sometimes as de bella fide, 
whereas foy is the Old French for beech, from Lat. 
fagus. Na-pier of Merchiston had the motto n'a -pier, 
" has no equal," and described himself on title-pages 
as the Nonpareil, but his ancestor was a servant who 
looked after the napery. With Holyoak' s rendering of 
his own name we may compare Parkinson's " latiniza- 
tion" of his name in his famous book on gardening(i62g), 
which bears the title Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terres- 
tris, i.e. the Earthly Paradise of "Park in Sun." 

Many noble names have an anecdotic " explanation." 
I learnt at school that Percy came from pierce-eye, 
in allusion to a treacherous exploit at Alnwick. The 
Lesleys claim descent from a hero who overthrew a 
Hungarian champion — 

" Between the less lee and the mair 
He slew the knight and left him there." 

(Quentin Durward, ch. xxxvii.) 


Similarly, the great name of Courtenay, Courtney, of 
French local origin, is derived in an Old French epic 
from court nez, short nose, an epithet conferred on the 
famous Guillaume d'Orange, who, when the sword of 
a Saracen giant removed this important feature, 
exclaimed undauntedly — 

"Mais que mon nes ai un poi acorcie, 
Bien sai mes nons en sera alongi6." 1 

(Li Coronemenz Loois, 1. 1159.) 

I read lately in some newspaper that the original Lock- 
hart took the " heart " of the Bruce to the Holy Land in 
a " locked " casket. Practically every famous Scottish 
name has a yarn connected with it, the gem perhaps 
being that which accounts for Guthrie. A Scottish 
king, it is said, landed weary and hungry as the sole 
survivor of a shipwreck. He approached a woman 
who was gutting fish, and asked her to prepare one 
for him. The kindly fishwife at once replied, " I'll 
gut three." Whereupon the king, dropping into rime 
with a readiness worthy of Mr. Wegg, said — 

"Then gut three. Your name shall be," 

and conferred a suitable estate on his benefactress. 
After all, truth is stranger than fiction. There is 
quite enough legitimate cause for wonderment in the 
fact that Tyas is letter for letter the same name as 
Douch, or that Strangeways, from a district in Man- 
chester which, lying between the Irwell and the Irk, 
was formerly subject to floods, is etymologically 
strong-wash. The Joannes Acutus whose tomb stands 
in Florence is the great free-lance captain Sir John 

1 " Though I have my nose a little shortened, I know well that my 
name will be thereby lengthened." 


Hawkwood, " omitting the h in Latin as frivolous, and 
the k and w as \musual " (Verstegan, Restitution of 
Decayed Intelligence, ch. ix), which makes him almost 
as unrecognizable as that Peter Gower, the supposed 
founder of freemasonry, who turned out to be Pythag- 

Many names are susceptible of two, three, or more 
explanations. This is especially true of some of our 
commonest monosyllabic surnames. Bell may be 
from Anglo-Fr. le bel (beau), or from a shop sign, 
or from residence near the church or town bell. It 
may even have been applied to the man who pulled 
the bell. Finally, the ancestor may have been 
a lady called Isabel, a supposition which does not 
necessarily imply illegitimacy (see p. 92). Ball is 
sometimes the shortened form of the once favourite 
Baldwin. It is also from a shop sign, and perhaps most 
frequently of all is for bald. The latter word is pro- 
perly balled, i.e., marked with a ball, 1 or white streak, 
a word of Celtic origin ; cf. piebald, i.e., balled like a 
(mag)pie, and the bald-faced stag. From the same 
word we get the augmentative Ballard, used, according 
to Wyclif, by the little boys who unwisely called to 
an irritable prophet — 

"Stey up battard" (2 Kings ii. 23). 

The name may also be personal, Anglo-Sax. Beal- 

heard. Rowe may be local, from residence in a row 

(cf. Fr. Delarue), or it may be an accidental spelling 

1 Halliwell notes that the nickname Ball is the name of a 
horse in Chaucer and Tusser, of a sheep in the Promptorium 
Parvulorum, and of a dog in the Privy Purse Expenses of 
Henry VIII. In each case the name alludes to a white mark, or 
what horsy people call a star. A cow thus marked is called in 
Scotland a. boasand cow, and from the same word comes the 
obsolete bawson, badger. 


of the nickname Roe, which also survives in the Mid. 
English form Ray (p. 223). But Row was also the 
shortened form of Rowland, or Roland. Cobb is an 
Anglo-Saxon name, as in the local Cobham, but it is 
also from the first syllable of Cobbold (Cuthbeald) and 
the second of Jacob. It has the diminutives Cobbin 
and Coftpin. 

Or, to take some less common names, House not only 
represents the medieval de la house, but also stands for 
Howes, which, in its turn, may be the plural of how, a 
hill (p. 106), or the genitive of How, one of the numer- 
ous medieval forms of Hugh (p. 59) . Barnett is some- 
times local, but, in most cases, represents Bernard, 
many of our Barnetts being German Jews. But in 
William del bamet, who died in 1348, we have a variant 
of Burnet, burn head (see p. 115). Rouse is generally 
Fr. roux, i.e. the red, but it may also be the nomina- 
tive l form of Rou, i.e. of Rolf, or Rollo, the sea-king 
who conquered Normandy. Was Holman the holy 
man, the man who lived near a holm, i.e. holly (p. 118), 
on a holm, or river island (p. 117), or in a hole, or 
hollow ? AH these origins have equal claims. 

As a rule, when an apparent nickname is also sus- 
ceptible of another solution, baptismal, local, or occupa- 
tive, the alternative explanation is to be preferred, 
as the popular tendency has always been towards 
twisting names into significant words. Thus, to take 
an example of each class, Diamond is for an old per- 
sonal name Dimond, Portwine is a corruption of 
Poitevin, the man from Poitou (p. 99), and Tipler, 

1 Old French had a declension in two cases. The nominative, 
which has now almost disappeared, was usually distinguished by -s. 
This survives in a few words, e.g. fils, and proper names such as 
Charles, Jules, etc. 


which now suggests alcoholic excess, was, as late as 
the seventeenth century, the regular name for an ale- 
house keeper. 

Thus in a very large number of cases there is a con- 
siderable choice for the modern bearer of a name. Any 
Boon or Bone who wishes to assert that — 

" Of Hereford's high blood he came, 
A race renown' d for knightly fame " 

(Lord of the Isles, vi. 15), 

can claim descent from de Bohun. While, if he holds 
that kind hearts are more than coronets, he has an 
alternative descent from some medieval le bon. This 
adjective, used as a personal name, gave also Bunn 
and Bunce; for the spelling of the latter name cf. 
Dance for Dans, and Pearce for Piers, the nominative 
of Pierre (see p. 9, n.), which also survives in Pears 
and Pearson. Swain may go back to the father of 
Canute, or to some hoary-headed swain who, possibly, 
tended the swine. Not all the Seymours are St. 
Mams. Some of them were once Seamers, i.e. 
tailors. Gosling is rather trivial, but it represents the 
romantic Jocelyn, in Normandy Gosselin, a diminu- 
tive of the personal name Josse, Lat. Jodocus. Goss 
is usually for goose, but any Goss, or Gossett, unwilling 
to trace his family back to John Goose, " my lord of 
Yorkes fole," 1 may likewise choose the French Josse 
or Gosse. Goss may also be a dialect pronunciation of 
gorse, the older form of which has given the name 
Gorst. Coward, though humble, cow-herd, is no more 
timid than Craven, the name of a district in the West 
Riding of Yorkshire. 

Mr. Chucks, when in good society, " seldom bowed, 
1 Privy Purse Expenses of Elizabeth of York (1502), 


sir, to anything under three syllables" {Peter Simple, 
ch. xvii.). But the length of a name is not necessarily 
an index of a noble meaning. As will be seen (pp. 74, 5 ), 
a great number of our monosyllabic names belong to 
the oldest stratum of all. The boatswain's own name, 
from Norman-Fr. chouque, a tree-stump, is identical 
with the rather aristocratic Zouch or Such, from the 
usual French form souche. Stubbs, which has the 
same meaning, may be compared with Curzon, Fr. 
courson, a stump, a derivative of court, short. Pomeroy 
has a lordly ring, but is the Old French for Applegarth 
or Appleyard (p. 142), and Camoys means flat-nosed, 
Fr. camus — 

"This wenche thikke and wel y-growen was, 
With kamuse nose, and eyen greye as glas." 

(A, 3973-) 

Kingsley, speaking of the name assumed by John 
Briggs, says — 

" Vavasour was a very pretty name, and one of those which is 
[sic] supposed by novelists and young ladies to be aristocratic ; 
why so is a puzzle ; as its plain meaning is a tenant farmer and 
nothing more or less " (Two Years Ago, ch. xi.). 

The word is interesting, because it is one of the few 
instances of a Latin genitive plural having passed 
into French. It represents a Vulgar Lat. vassus 
vassorum, vassal of vassals. 

On the other hand, many a homely name has a 
complimentary meaning. Mr. Wegg did not like the 
name Boffin, but its oldest form is bon-fin, good and 
fine. In 1273 Mr. Bumble's name was spelt bon-bel, 
good and beautiful. With these we may group 
Bunker, of which the oldest form is bon-quer (bon 
cceur), and Boffey, which corresponds to the common 


French name Bonnefoy, good faith; while the much 
more assertive Beaufoy means simply fine beech (p. 6) . 
With Bunker we may compare Goodhart and Cor- 
deaux, the oldest form of the latter being the French 
name Cceurdoux. Momerie and Mummery are identical 
with Mowbray, from Monbrai in Normandy. Moly- 
neux impresses more than Mullins, of which it is merely 
the dim., Fr. moulins, mills. The Yorkshire name 
Tankard is a perversion of Tancred. Stiggins goes 
back to the illustrious Anglo-Saxon name Stigand, as 
Wiggins does to wigand, a champion. Cadman repre- 
sents Caedmon, the name of the poet-monk of Whitby. 
Segar and Sugar are imitative forms of the Anglo- 
Sax. Ssegser, of which the normal modern representa- 
tive is Sayers. Giblett is not a name one would covet, 
but it stands in the same relationship to Gilbert as 
Hamlet does to Hamo. 

A small difference in spelling makes a great difference 
in the look of a name. The aristocratic Coke is an 
archaic spelling of Cook, the still more lordly Herries 
sometimes disguises Harris, while the modern Brassey 
is the same as de Bracy in Ivanhoe. The rather grisly 
Nightgall is a variant of Nightingale. The accidental 
retention of particles and articles is also effective, e.g. 
Delmar, Delamere, Delapole, impress more than Mears 
and Pool, and Larpent (Fr. l'arpent), Lemaitre, and 
Lestrange more than Acres, Masters, and Strange. There 
are few names of less heroic sound than Spark and 
Codlin, yet the former is a contraction of the pic- 
turesque Sparrow-hawk, used as a personal name by 
the Anglo-Saxons, while the latter can be traced back 
via the earlier forms Quodling (still found), Querdling, 
Querdelyoun to Coeur de Lion. 



" Quelque diversity d'herbes qu'il y ait, tout s'enveloppe sous 
le nom de salade ; de mesme, sous la consideration des noms, je 
m'en voys faire icy une galimafree de divers articles." 

(Montaigne, Essais, i. 46.) 

Just as, in studying a new language, the linguist finds 
it most helpful to take a simple text and hammer out 
in detail every word and grammatical form it contains, 
so the student of name-lore cannot do better than 
tackle a medieval roll and try to connect every name 
in it with those of the present day. I give here two 
lists of names from the Hundred Rolls of 1273. The 
first contains the names of London and Middlesex 
jurymen, most of them, especially the Londoners, men 
of substance and position. The second is a list of 
cottagers resident in the village of Steeple Claydon in 
Bucks. Even a cursory perusal of these lists should 
suffice to dispel all recollection of the nightmare ' ' philo- 
logy " which has been so much employed to obscure 
what is perfectly simple and obvious ; while a very 
slight knowledge of Latin and French is all that is 
required to connect these names of men who were 
dead and buried before the Battle of Crecy with those 
to be found in any modern directory. The brief 
indications supplied under each name will be found in 
a fuller form in the various chapters of the book to 
which references are given. 



For simplicity I have given the modern English 
form of each Christian name and expanded the. abbre- 
viations used by the official compilers. It will be 
noticed that English, Latin, and Anglo-French are 
used indifferently, that le is usually, though not always, 
put before the trade-name or nickname, that de is 
put before place-names and at before spots which have 
no proper name. The names in the right-hand column 
are only specimens of the, often very numerous, modern 

London Jurymen 

Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

William Dibel. Dibble (Theobald). 

Initial t- and d- alternate (p. 32 ) according to locality. 
In Tennyson, for Denison, son of Denis, we have the 
opposite change. The forms assumed by Theobald 
are very numerous (p. 4). Besides Dibble we have 
the shorter Dibb. It is almost certain that to the 
same name we owe both Double and Treble, the 
latter with the intrusive -r- which is not unusual in 
names (p. 88, n. 1) 

Baldwin le Bocher. Butcher, Booker, etc. 

On the various forms of this name, see p. 149. 

Robert Hauteyn. Auty. 

A Yorkshire name. The omission or addition of an 
aspirate is very common (p. 38). Cf. Harnett for 
Arnett, dim. of Arnold. 

Henry le Wimpler. 

The name has apparently disappeared with the gar- 
ment. But it is never safe to assert that a surname 
is quite extinct. 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

Stephen le Feron. Fearon. 

From Old Fr. feron, smith, from ferir, to smite. In a 
few cases French has -on as an agential suffix (p. 171). 

William de Paris. Paris, Parris, Parish. 

The commoner modern form Parish is seldom to be 
derived from our word parish. This rarely occurs, 
while the entry de Paris is, on the other hand, very 

Roger le Wyn. Wynne (white). 

A Celtic nickname, identical with Gwynne. For 
other common nicknames of Celtic origin, see p. 216. 

Matthew de Pomfrait. Pomfret. 

The usual pronunciation of Pontefract, broken bridge, 
one of the few English place-names of purely Latin 
origin (p. 120). The Old French form would be pont- 

Richard le Paumer. Palmer. 

A man who had made pilgrimage to the Holy Land 
(p. 167). The modern spelling is restored, but the -l- 
remains mute. It is just possible that this name 
sometimes means tennis-player, as tennis, Fr. le jeu 
de paume, once played with the palm of the hand, is 
of great antiquity. 

Walter Poletar. Poulter. 

A dealer in poults, i.e. fowls. For the lengthened 
form poulterer, cf. fruiterer for fruiter, and see p. 155. 

Reginald Aurifaber. Goldsmith. 

The French form orfevre has also given the name 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

Henry Deubeneye. Daubeney, Dabney. 

Fr. d'Aubigny. One of the many cases in which the 
French preposition has been incorporated in the name. 
Cf. Danvers, for d'Anvers, Antwerp, and see p. ioo. 

Richard Knotte. Knott. 

From Scandinavian Cnut, Canute. This name is also 
local, from knot, a hillock, and has of course become 
confused (p. 30) with the nickname Nott, with cropped 
hair (p. 210). 

" Thou MO«-pated fool." 

(1 Henry IV, ii. 4.) 

Walter le Wyte. White. 

The large number of Whites is partly to be accounted 
for by their having absorbed the name Wight (p. 214) 
from Mid. Eng. wiht, valiant. 

Adam le Sutel. Suttle. 

Both Eng. subtle and Fr. subtil are restored 

spellings, which do not appear in nomenclature (see 
p. 29). 

Fulk de Sancto Edmundo. Tedman. 

The older form would be Tednam. Bury St. Ed- 
mund's is sometimes referred to as Tednambury. For 
the mutilation of the word saint in place-names, see 
P- 34- 

William le Boteler. Butler. 

More probably a bottle-maker than what we under- 
stand by a butler, the origin being of course the same. 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

Gilbert Lupus. Wolf. 

Wolf, and the Scandinavian Ulf , are both common as 
personal names before the Conquest, but a good many 
modern bearers of the name are German Jews (see 
p. 55). Old Fr. lou (loup) is one source of Low. 

Stephen Juvenis. Young. 

Senex is rarely found. The natural tendency was to 
distinguish the younger man from his father. Senior 
is generally to be explained differently (see p. 145). 

William Braciator. Brewer. 

The French form brasseur also survives as Bracher 
and Brasher, the latter being also confused with 
Brazier, the worker in brass. 

John de Cruce. Cross, Crouch. 

A man who lived near some outdoor cross. The 
form crouch survives in Crutched Friars. Hence also 
the name Croucher. 

Matthew le Candeler. Candler, Chandler. 

Initial c- for ch- shows Norman or Picard origin 
(see p. 32). 

Henry Bernard. Barnard, Barnett. 

The change from -er- to -ar- is regular ; cf . Clark, and 
see p. 32 . The endings -aril, -aid, are generally changed 
to -ett; cf. Everett for Everard, Barrett for Berald, 
Garrett for Gerard, Garrard, whence the imitative 
Garrison for Garretson. 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

William de Bosco. Bush, Busk, Buss. 

" For there is neither busk nor hay (p. 124) 
In May that it nyl shrouded bene." 

(Romaunt of the Rose, 54-) 

The name might also be translated as Wood. The 
corresponding name of French origin is Boyce or 
Boyes, Fr. bois (see p. 140). 

Henry de Sancta Ositha. Toosey. 

Cf. Fulk de Sancto Edmundo (supra), and cf. Tooley 
St. for St. Olave St. (see p. 34). 

Walter ate Stede. Stead. 

In this case the preposition has not coalesced, as 
in Adeane, at the dean, i.e. hollow, Agate, at gate, etc. 
(see p. 104). 

William le Fevere. Wright, Smith. 

The French name survives as Feaver and Fevyer. 
Cf. also the Lat. Faber, which is not always a modern 
German importation (see p. 105, n.). 

Thomas de Cumbe. Combe, Coombes. 

A West- country name for a hollow in a hillside 
(see p. 106). 

John Stace. Stace, Stacey. 

Generally for Eustace, but sometimes perhaps for 
Anastasia, as we find Stacey used as a female name 
(see p. 33). 

Richard le Teynturier. Dyer, Dyter, Dexter. 

Dexter represents Mid. Eng. dighester, with the femin- 
ine agential suffix (see p. 149). 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

Henry le Waleys. Wallis, Walsh, Welch. 

Literally the foreigner, but especially applied by the 
English to the Western Celts. Quelch represents the 
Welsh pronunciation. With Wallis cf . Comwallis, Mid. 
Eng. le cornwaleis (see p. 96). 

John le Bret. Brett, Britton. 

An inhabitant of Brittany, perhaps resident in that 

Breton colony in London called Little Britain. Bret 

is the Old French nominative of Breton (see p. 8o, n. 1). 

Thomas le Clerc. Clark. 

One of our commonest names. We now spell the 
common noun clerk by etymological reaction, but 
educated people pronounce the word as it was generally 
written up to the eighteenth century (see p. 32). 

Stephen le Hatter. 

The disappearance of this name is a curious problem 
(see p. 151). The name Capper exists, though it is not 
very common. 

Thomas le Batur. Thresher. 

But, being a Londoner, he was more probably a 
gold-beater, or perhaps a beater of cloth. The name 
Beater also survives. 

Alexander de Leycestre. Leicester, Lester. 

For the simpler spelling, once usual and still adopted 
by those who chalk the names on the mail-vans at 
St. Pancras, cf. such names as Worster, Wooster, 
Gloster, etc. (see p. 99). 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

Robert le Noreys. Norris, Nurse. 

Old Fr. noreis, the Northerner (see p. 97). ° r norice 
(nourrice), the nurse, foster-mother (see p. 185). 

Reginald le Blond. Blount, Blunt. 

Fr. blond, fair. We have also the dim. Blun- 
dell. The corresponding English name is Fairfax, 
from Mid. Eng. fax, hair (see p. 214). 

Randolf ate Mor. Moor. 

With the preposition retained (see p. 104) it has given 
the Latin-looking Amor. 

Matthew le Pevrier. Pepper. 

For the reduction of pepperer to Pepper cf. Armour 
for armourer, and see p. 155. 

Godfrey le Furmager. Cheeseman, Firminger. 

From Old Fr. formage (fromage). The intrusion of 
the n in Firminger is regular ; cf . Massinger, messenger, 
from Fr. messager, and see p. 35 . 

Robert Campeneys. Champness, Champneys. 

Old Fr. champeneis (champenois), of Champagne 
(see p. 99). 

John del Pek. Peck, Peake, Pike, Pick. 

A name taken from a hill-top, but often applied 
specifically to the Derbyshire Peak (see p. 107). 

Richard Dygun. Dickens. 

A diminutive of Dig, for Dick (see p. 63). 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

Peter le Hoder. Hodder. 

A maker of hods or a maker of hoods ? The latter 
is more likely. 

Alan Allutarius. Whittier. 

Lat. alutarius, a white tawer. Similarly, Mid. Eng. 
stan-heawere, stone-hewer, is contracted to Stanier, 
now swallowed up by Stainer. The simple tawer is 
also one origin of the name Tower. 

Peter le Rus. Russ, Rush, Rouse. 

Fr. roux, of red complexion. Cf. the dim. Russell, 
Fr. Rousseau (see p. 214). 

Middlesex Jurymen 

Roger de la Hale. Hall, Hale, Hales. 

One of our commonest local surnames. But it has 
two interpretations, from hall and heal (p. 116). 

Walter de la Hegge. Hedge, Hedges. 

Other forms of the same word are Hay, Hayes, 
Haig, Haigh, Hawes (see p. 124). 

John Rex. King. 

One of our commonest nicknames, the survival of 
which is easily understood (see p. 144). 

Stephen de la Novele Meyson. Newhouse. 

Cf. also Newbigging, from Mid. Eng. biggen, to 
build (see p. 133). 

Randolf Pokoc. Pocock, Peacock. 

The simple Poe, Lat. fiavo, has the same meaning 
(see p. 218). 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

William de Fonte. Spring, Wells, Weller, Attewell. 

This is the more usual origin of the name Spring 
(see p. 90). 

Robert del Perer. Perrier. 

Old Fr. perier (poirier), pear-tree. Another origin of 
Perrier is, through French, from Lat. petrarius, a stone- 

Adam de la Denne. Denne, Dean, Dene. 

A Mid. English name for valley (see p. 112). 

Robertus filius Gillelmi. Wilson. 

For other possible names to be derived from a father 
named William, see p. 63. 

William filius Radolfi. Rawson. 

A very common medieval name, Anglo-Sax. Rsd- 
wulf, the origin of our Ralph, Relf, Rolfe, Roff, and of 
Fr. Raoul. Some of its derivatives, e.g. Rolls, have got 
mixed with those of Roland. To be distinguished from 
Randolf or Randall, of which the shorter form is Ran 
or Rand, whence Rankin, Rands, Ranee, etc. 

Steeple Claydon Cottagers 

Andrew Colle. Collins, Colley. 

For Nicolas (see p. 57). 

William Neuman. Newman, Newcomb. 

A man recently settled in the village (see p. 106). 

Adam ate Dene. Dean, Denne, Adeane. 

The separate at survives in a' Court and a Beckett, 
at the beck head ; cf. Allan a' Dale (see p. 104) . 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

Ralph Mydevynter. Midwinter. 

An old name for Christmas (see p. 89). 

William ate Hull. Athill, Hill, Hull. 

The form hul for hit occurs in Mid. English (see p. 106) 

Gilbert Sutor. Sutor, Souter. 

On the poor representation of the shoemaker see 
p. 151. 

Walter Maraud. 

It is easy to understand the disappearance of this 
name — 

" A rogue, begger, vagabond ; a varlet, rascall, scoundrell, base 
knave " (Cotgrave) ; 

but it may be represented by Marratt, Marrott, unless 
these are from Mary (p. 93). 

Nicholas le P.ker. 

This may be expanded into Parker, a park-keeper, 
Packer, a wool-packer, or the common medieval 
Porker, a swine-herd, now disguised as Parker. 

John Stegand. Stiggins. 

Anglo-Saxon names survived chiefly among the 
peasantry (see p. 12). 

Roger Mercator. Marchant, Chapman. 

The restored modern spelling merchant has affected 
the pronunciation of the common noun (see p. 32). 
The more usual term Chapman is cognate with cheap, 
chafer, Chipping, Copenhagen, Ger. kaufen, to buy, etc. 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

Adam Hoppe. Hobbs, Hobson, Hopkins. 

An example of the interchange of b and ft (see p. 35 
Hob is usually regarded as one of the rimed forms 
from Robert (see p. 62). 

Roger Crom. Crum, Crump. 

Lit. crooked, cognate with Ger. krumm. The final 
-ft of Crumft is excrescent (see p. 35). 

Stephen Cornevaleis. Cornwallis, Cornish. 

A name which would begin in Devonshire (see p. 96). 

Walter de Ibernia. Ireland. 

A much more common name than Scotland, which 
has been squeezed out by Scott (see p. 96). 

Matilda filia Matildse. Mawson (for Maud-son), Till, 

Tilley, Tillett, Tillotson, etc. 
One of the favourite girl-names during the surname 
period (seep. 93). 

Ralph Vouler. Fowler. 

A West-country pronunciation ; cf . Vowle for Fowell, 
Vokes. for Foakes (p. 61), Venn for Fenn, etc. 

John Alius Thomse. Thompson, Tompkins, Tomlin, etc. 
One of the largest surname families. It includes 
Toulmin, a metathesis of Tomlin. In Townson and 
Tonson it coalesces with Tony, Anthony. 

Henry Bolle. Bull. 

In this case evidently a nickname (see p. 5). 


Hundred Rolls Modern Form 

Roger Gyle. Gill. 

For names in Gil- see p. 59. The form in the roll 
may, however, represent an uncomplimentary nick- 
name, " guile." 

Walter Molendarius. Miller, Mellor, Milner. 

In Milne, Milner, we have the oldest form, repre- 
senting Vulgar Lat. molina, mill ; cf . Kilner, from 
kiln, Lat. culina, kitchen. Millard (p. 180) is no doubt 
sometimes the same name with excrescent -d. 

Thomas Berker. Barker. 

A man who stripped bark, also a tanner. But as a 
surname reinforced by the Norman form of Fr. berger, 
a shepherd (see p. 150). 

Matthew Hedde. Head. 

Sometimes local, at the head, but here a nickname ; 
cf. Tate, Tail, sometimes from Fr. tete (see p. 126). 

Richard Joyet. Jowett, Jewett. 

A diminutive either of Joy or of Julian, Juliana. 
But it is possible that Joy itself is not the abstract 
noun, but a shortened form of Julian. 

Adam Kyg. Ketch, Keach. 

An obsolete adjective meaning lively (see p. 212). 

Simon Alius Johannis Nigelli. Johnson, Jones, Jennings, 

The derivatives of John are innumerable and not 
to be distinguished from those of Joan, Jane (see p. 95). 


In the above lists occur examples of all the ways in 
which surnames could be formed. At the time of 
compilation they were not hereditary. Thus the last 
man on the list is Simon Johnson, but his father was 
John Neilson, or Nelson (see p. 95), and his son would 

be Simpson, Sims, etc. This would go on until, at 

a period varying with the locality, the wealth and im- 
portance of the individual, etc., one name in the line 
would become accidentally petrified and persist to the 
present day. The chain could, of course, be broken at 
any time by the assumption of a name from one of the 
other three classes. 



" Do you spell it with a V or a W ? " inquired the judge. 

" That depends upon the taste and fancy of the speller, my lord," 
replied Sam. " I never had occasion to spell it more than once or 
twice in my life, but I spells it with a V." 

(Pickwick, ch. xxxiv.) 

Many people are particular about the spelling of their 
names. I am myself, although, as a student of philo- 
logy, I ought to know better. The greatest of English- 
men was so careless in the matter as to sign himself 
Shagsfer, a fact usually emphasized by Baconians when 
speaking of the illiterate clown of Stratford-on-Avon. 
Equally illiterate must have been the learned Dr. 
Crown, who, in the various books he published in the 
latter half of the seventeenth century, spelt his name 
indifferently Cron, Croon, Croun, Crone, Croone, 
Croune. The modern spelling of any particular name 
is a pure accident. Before the Elementary Education 
Act of 1870 a considerable proportion of English people 
did not spell their names at all. They trusted to the 
parson and the clerk, who did their best with unfamiliar 
names. Even now old people in rural districts may 
find half a dozen orthographic variants of their own 
names among the sparse documentary records of their 
lives. Dugdale the antiquary is said to have found 
more than 130 variants of Mainwaring among the 



parchments of that family. Bardsley quotes, under 
the name Blenkinsop — 

" On April 23, 14 70, Elizabeth Blynkkynesoppye , of Blynkkynsoppe , 
widow of Thomas Blynkyensope, of Blynhkensope, received a general 
pardon " — 

four variants in one sentence. In the List of Foreign 
Protestants and Aliens in England (1618) we have 
Andrian Medlor and Ellin Medley his wife, Johan Cosen 
and Abraham Cozen, brethren. The death of Sarah 
Inward, daughter of Richard Inwood, was registered 
in 1685. 

Medieval spelling was roughly phonetic, i.e. it at- 
tempted to reproduce the sound of the period and region, 
and even men of learning, as late as the eighteenth 
century, were very uncertain in matters of orthography. 
The spelling of the language is now practically normal- 
ized, although in conformity with no sort of principle ; 
but the family name, as a private possession, has kept 
its freedom. Thus, if we wish to speak poetically of 
a meadow, I suppose we should call it a lea, but the 
same word is represented by the family names Lea, 
Lee, Ley, Leigh, Legh, Legge, Lay, Lye, perhaps the 
largest group of local surnames we possess. 

In matters of spelling we observe various tendencies. 
One is the retention of an archaic form, which does not 
necessarily affect pronunciation. Late Mid. English 
was fond of y for i, of double consonants, and of final 
-e. All these appear in the names Thynne (thin) and 
Wyllie (wily). Therefore we should not deride the 
man who writes himself Smythe. But in some cases 
the pronunciation suffers, e.g. the name Fry represents 
Mid. Eng. fri, one of the forms of the adjective that is 
now written free. Burt represents Anglo-Sax. beorht, 
the normal result of which is Bright. We now write 


subtle and perfect, artificial words, in the second of which 
the pronunciation has been changed in accordance 
with the restored spelling ; but the older forms survive 
in the names Suttle and Parfitt — 

" He was a verray parfit, gentil knyght." 

(A. 72.) 

The usual English pronunciation of nanies like Mac- 
kenzie, Menzies, Dalziel, is due to the substitution by 
the printer of a z for an obsolete letter 1 that repre- 
sented a soft palatal sound more like y. 

We have an archaic plural endingin Knollys(Knowles), 
the plural of knoll, and in Sandys, and an archaic spell- 
ing mSclater for Slater or Slatter, for both slat and slate 
come from Old Fr. esclat (eclat), a splinter. With 
Knollys and Sandys we may put Pepys, for the exist- 
ence of the dims. Pipkin, Peppitt, and Peppiatt points 
to the medieval name Pipun, corresponding to the 
royal Pepin. Streatfeild preserves variant spellings 
of street and field. In Gardiner we have the Old 
Northern French word which now, as a common 
noun, gardener, is assimilated to garden, the normal 
French form of which appears in Jardine. 

Such orthographic variants as i and y, Simons, 
Symons, ph and /, Jephcott, Jeffcott, s and c, Pearse, 
Pearce, Rees, Reece,Sellars (cellars), ks and#, Dickson, 
Dixon, are a matter of taste or accident. Initial letters 
which became mute often disappeared in spelling, e.g. 

1 This substitution has led one writer on surnames, who appar- 
ently confuses bells with beans, to derive the obsolete name 
Billiter, whence Billiter's Lane in the City, from " Belzetter, i.e., the 
bell-setter." The Mid. Eng. " bellezeter, campanarius " (Prompt. 
Pan.), was a bell-founder, from a verb related to geysir, ingot, and 
Ger. giessen, to pour. Robert le bellegeter was a freeman of York 
in 1279. 


Wray, a corner (p. 127), has become hopelessly confused 
with Ray, a roe, Knott, from Cnut, i.e. Canute, or 
from dialect knot, a hillock, with Nott, crop-haired. 
Knowlson is the son of Nowell (see p. 89) or of Noll, 
i.e. Oliver. Therefore, when Mr. X. asserts that his 
name has always been spelt in such and such a way, 
he is talking nonsense. If his great-grandfather's 
will is accessible, and a document of any length, he 
will probably find two or three variants in that alone. 
The great Duke of Wellington, as a younger man, 
signed himself Arthur Wesley — 

" He was colonel of Dad's regiment, the Thirty-third foot, after 
Dad left the army, and then he changed his name from Wesley 
to Wellesley, or else the other way about " 

(Kipling, Marklake Witches) ; 

and I know two families the members of which 
disagree as to the orthography of their names. We 
have a curious affectation in such spellings as ffrench, 
ffoulkes, etc., where the ff is merely the method of indi- 
cating the capital letter in early documents. 

The telescoping of long names is a familiar phe- 
nomenon. Well-known examples are Cholmondeley, 
Chumley, Marjoribanks, Marchbanks, Mainwaring, 
Mannering. Less familiar are Auchinleck, Affleck, 
Boutevilain, Butlin, Postlethwaite, Posnett, Sudeley, 
Sully, Wolstenholme, Woosnam. Ensor is from the local 
Edensor, Cavendish was regularly Candish for the Eliza- 
bethans, while Cavenham in Suffolk has given the sur- 
name Canham. Daventry has become Daintree, Dentry, 
and probably the imitative Dainty, while Stenson is for 
Stevenson. It is this tendency which makes the con- 
nection between surnames and village names so diffi- 
cult to establish in many cases, for the artificial name 
as it occurs in the gazetteer often gives little clue to 


the local pronunciation. It is easy to recognize 
Bickenhall or Bickenhill in Bicknell and Puttenham 
in Putnam, but the identity of Wyndham with 
Wymondham is only clear when we know the local 
pronunciation of the latter name. Milton and Melton 
are often telescoped forms of Middleton. 

Dialectic variants must also be taken into account. 
Briggs and Rigg represent the Northern forms of 
Bridges and Ridge, and Philbrick is a disguised fell- 
bridge. In Egg we have rather the survival of the 
Mid. English spelling of Edge. Braid, Lang, Strang, 
are Northern variants of Broad, Long, Strong. Auld 
is for Old, while Tamson is for Thompson and Dabbs 
for Dobbs (Robert). We have the same change of 
vowel in Raper, for Roper. Venner generally means 
hunter, Fr. veneur, but sometimes represents the West- 
country form of Fenner, the fen-dweller ; cf. Vidler 
for fiddler, and Vanner for Fanner, the winnower. 

We all know the difficulty we have in catching a new 
and unfamiliar name, and the subterfuges we employ 
to find out what it really is. In such cases we do 
not get the help from association and analogy which 
serves us in dealing with language in general, but find 
ourselves in the position of a foreigner or child hearing 
an unfamiliar word for the first time. We realize how 
many imperceptible shades there are between a short 
i and a short e, or between a fully voiced g and a voice- 
less k, examples suggested to me by my having lately 
understood a Mr. Riggs to be a Mr. Rex. 

We find occurring in surnames examples of those 
consonantal changes which do not violate the great 
phonetic law that such changes can only occur 
regularly within the same group, i.e. that a labial 
cannot alternate with a palatal, or a dental with 


either. It is thus that we find b alternating with 
p, Hobbs and Hopps (Robert), Bullinger and Pullinger, 
Fr. boulanger ; g with k, Cutlack and Goodlake (Anglo- 
Sax. Guthlac), Diggs and Dix (Richard), Gipps and 
Kipps (Gilbert), Catlin and Catling (Catherine) ; j with 
ch, Jubb or Jupp and Chubb (Job) ; d with i(, Proud 
and Prout (see p. 213), Dyson and Tyscm (Dionisia), and 
also with th, Carrodus and Carruthers (a hamlet in 
Dumfries). The alternation of c and ch or g and / in 
names of French origin is dialectic, the c and g 
representing the Norman-Picard pronunciation, e.g. 
Campion for Champion, Gosling for Joslin. In some 
cases we have shown a definite preference for one 
form, e.g. Chancellor and Chappell, but Carpenter and 
Camp. In English names c is northern, c/j southern, 
e.g. Carlton, Charlton, Kirk, Church. 

There are also a few very common vowel changes. 
The sound er usually became ar, as in Barclay 
(Berkeley), Clark, Darby, Garrard (Gerard), Jarrold 
(Gerald), Harbord (Herbert), Jarvis (Gervase), Mar- 
chant, Sargent, etc., while Lamed, our great-grand- 
fathers' pronunciation of " learned," corresponds to 
Fr. Littre. Thus Parkins is the same name as Perkins 
(Peter), and these also give Parks and Perks, the former 
of which is usually not connected with Park. To Peter, 
or rather to Fr. Pierre, belong also Parr, Parry and 
Perry, though Parry is generally Welsh (see p. 66). The 
dims. Parrott, Perrott, etc., were sometimes nicknames, 
the etymology being the same, for our word parrot 
is from Fr. pierrot. To the freedom with which this 
sound is spelt, e.g. in Herd, Heard, Hird, Hurd, we 
also owe Purkiss ; cf . appurtenance for older apparten- 
ance. The letter I seems also to exercise a demoralizing 
influence on the adjacent vowel. Juliana^ became 


Gillian, and from this, or from the masculine form 
Julian, we get Jutland, Jottand, and the shortened Gell, 
Gill (see p. 59), and Jull. Gallon, which Bardsley groups 
with these, is more often a French name, from the 
Old German Walo, or a corruption of the still commoner 
French name Gotland, likewise of Germanic origin. 

We find also such irregular vowel changes as Flinders 
for Flanders, and conversely Packard for Picard. 
Pottinger (see p. 35) sometimes becomes Pettinger as 
Portugal gives Pettingall. The general tendency is 
towards that thinning of the vowel that we get in mister 
for master and Miss Miggs's mim for ma'am. Biddulph 
for Botolf is an example of this. But in Royle for the 
local Ryle we find the same broadening which has given 
boil, a swelling, for earlier bile. 

Among phonetic changes which occur with more or 
less regularity are those called aphesis, epenthesis, 
epithesis, assimilation, dissimilation, and metathesis, 
convenient terms which are less learned than they 
appear. Aphesis is the loss of the unaccented first 
syllable, as in 'baccy and 'tater. It occurs almost 
regularly in words of French origin, e.g. squire and 
esquire, prentice and apprentice. When such double 
forms exist, the surname invariably assumes the popular 
form, e.g. Prentice, Squire. Other examples are 
Bonner, i.e. debonair, Jenner, Jenoure, for Mid. Eng. 
engenour, engineer, Color, Chaytor, Old Fr. acatour 
(acheteur), a buyer — 

"A gentil maunciple was ther of a temple, 
Of which achatours mighte take exemple" (A. 567), 

Spencer, dispenser, a spender, Stacey for Eustace, 
Vick and Veck for Levick, i.e. I'evique, the bishop, 
Merrick for Almeric, Pottinger for the obsolete potigar, 


an apothecary, etc. The institution now known as 
the "orspittle" was called by our unlettered fore- 
fathers the " spital," hence the names Spittle and 
Spiitlehouse . A well-known amateur goal-keeper has 
the appropriate name Fender, for defender. 

Many names beginning with n are due to aphesis, 
e.g. Nash for atten ash, N alder, Nelms, Nock, alien oak, 
Nokes, Nye, atten ey, at the island, N angle, atten angle, 
Nind or Nend, atten ind or end. With these we may 
compare Twells, at wells, and the numerous cases in 
which the first part of a personal name is dropped, e.g. 
Tolley, Bartholomew, Munn, Edmund, Pott, Philpot, 
dim. of Philip (see p. 87) and the less common Facey, 
from Boniface, and Loney, from Appolonia, the latter 
of which has also given Applin. 

When a name compounded with Saint begins with 
a vowel, we get such forms as Tedman, St. Edmund, 
Tohin, St. Aubyn, Toosey, St. Osith, Toomer, St. Omer, 
Tooley, St. Olave ; cf . Tooley St. for St. Olave St. and 
tawdry from St. Audrey. When the saint's name begins 
with a consonant, we get, instead of aphesis, a telescoped 
pronunciation, e.g. Selinger, St. Leger, Seymour, St. 
Maur, Sinclair, St. Clair, Semark, St. Mark, Semple, 
St. Paul, Simper, St. Pierre, Sidney, probably for St. 
Denis, with which we may compare the educated 
pronunciation of St. John. These names are all 
of local origin, from chapelries in Normandy or 

Epenthesis is the insertion of a sound which facilitates 
pronunciation, such as that of b in Fr. chambre, from 
Lat. camera. The intrusive sound may be a vowel or a 
consonant as in the names Henery, Hendry, perver- 
sions of Henry." To Hendry we owe the northern 

1 On the usual fate of this name in English, see p. 38. 


Henderson, which has often coalesced with Anderson, 
from Andrew. These are contracted into Henson and 
Anson, the latter also from Ann and Agnes (see p. 88). 
Intrusion of a vowel is seen in Greenaway, Hathaway, 
heath way, Treadaway, trade (i.e. trodden) way, etc., 
also in Horniman, Alabone, Alban, Minister, minster, 
etc. But epenthesis of a consonant is more common, 
especially b or p after m, and d after n. Examples are 
Gamble for the Anglo-Saxon name Gamel, Hamblin for 
Hamlin, a double diminutive of Hamo, Simpson, 
Thompson, etc., and Grindrod, green royd (see p. 111). 
There is also the special case of n before g in such 
names as Firminger (see p. 148), Massinger (p. 185), 
Pottinger (p. 176), etc. 

Epithesis, or the addition of a final consonant, is 
common in uneducated speech, e.g. scholar d, gownd, 
gar ding, etc. I say " uneducated," but many such 
forms have been adapted by the language, e.g. sound, 
Fr. son, and we have the name Kitching for kitchen. 
The usual additions are -d, -t, or -g after n, e.g. Sim- 
monds, Simon, Hammond, Hammant, Fr. Hamon, Hind, 
a farm labourer, of which the older form is Hine 
(p. 164), Collings for Collins, Jennings, Fr. Jeannin, 
dim. of Jean, Aveling from the female name Avelina 
or Evelyn. Neild is for Neil, Nigel. We have 
epithetic -b in Plumb, the man who lived by the 
plum-tree and epithetic -p in Crump (p. 24). 

Assimilation is the tendency of a sound to imitate its 
neighbour. Thus the d of Hud (p. 3) sometimes be- 
comes t in contact with the sharp s, hence Hutson ; 
Tomkins tends to become Tonkins, whence Tonks, if 
the m and k are not separated by the epenthetic p, 
Tompkins. In Hopps and Hopkins we have the b of 
Hob assimilated to the sharp s and k, while in Hobbs 


we pronounce a final -z. It is perhaps under the in- 
fluence of the initial labial that Milson, son of Miles, 
sometimes becomes Milsom, and Branson, son of 
Brand, appears as Bransom. 

The same group of names is affected by dissimilation, 
i.e. the instinct to avoid the recurrence of the same 
sound. Thus Ranson, son of Ranolf or Randolf , becomes 
Ransom 1 by dissimilation of one n, and Hanson, son of 
Han (see p. 3), becomes Hansom. In Sansom we have 
Samson assimilated to Sanson and then dissimilated. 
Dissimilation especially affects the sounds I, n, r. 
Bullivant is found earlier as bon enfaunt (Goodchild), 
just as a braggart Burgundian was called by Tudor 
dramatists a bwgullian} Glazebrook (see p. 115) is 
sometimes a dissimilation of Grazebrook (grass). Those 
people called Salisbury who do not hail from Salesbury 
in Lancashire must have had an ancestor de Sares-bury, 
for such was the earlier name of Salisbury (Sarum). 
A number of occupative names have lost the last 
syllable by dissimilation, e.g. Pef-per for pepperer, 
Armour for armourer. For further examples see 

P- !55- 

It may be noted here that, apart from dissimila- 
tion, the sounds /, n, r, have a general tendency 
to become confused, e.g. Phillimore is for Finamour 
(Dearlove), which also appears as Finnemore and 
Fenimore, the latter also to be explained from fen 
and moor. Catlin is from Catherine. Balestier, a 
cross-bow man, gives Bannister, and Hamnet and 

1 So also Fr. rancon gives Eng. ransom. The French surname 
Rancon is probably aphetic for Laurancon. 

2 " When was Bobadil here, your captain ? that rogue, that 
foist, that fencing burgullian " (Jonson, Every Man in his 
Humour, iv. 2). 


Hamlet both occur as the name of one of Shakespeare's 
sons. Janico or Jenico, Fr. Janicot, little Johnny, is 
now Jellicoe. We also get the change of r to / in 
Hal, for Harry, whence Hallett, Hawkins (Halkins), 
and the Cornish Hockin, Mai or Mol for Mary, 
whence Malleson, Mollison, etc., and Pell for Pere- 
grine. This confusion is common in infantile speech, 
e.g. I have heard a small child express great satis- 
faction at the presence on the table of " blackbelly 

Metathesis, or the transposition of sound, chiefly 
affects I and r, especially the latter. Our word 
cress is from Mid. Eng. kers, which appears in Kar slake, 
Toulmin is for Tomlin, a double dim., -el-in, of Tom, 
Grundy is for Gundry, from Anglo-Sax. Gundred, and 
Joe Gargery descended from a Gregory. Burnett is for 
Brunei, dim. of Fr. brun, brown, and Thrupp is for 
Thorp, a village (p. 122). Strickland was formerly 
Stirkland, Cripps is the same as Crisp, from Mid. Eng. 
crisp, curly. Prentis Jankin had — 

" Crispe here, shynynge as gold so fyn " 

(P. 304); 

and of Fame we are told that — 

" Her heer was oundie (wavy) and crips." 

{House of Fame, iii. 296.) 

Both names may also be short for Crispin, the etymo- 
logy being the same in any case. Apps is sometimes 
for asp, the tree now called by the adjectival name 
aspen (cf. linden). We find Thomas atte apse in the 
reign of Edward III. 

The letters /, n, r also tend to disappear from no 
other cause than rapid or careless pronunciation. 


Hence we get Home for Holme (p. 1 17), Ferris for Ferrers, 
a French local name, Batt for Bartholomew, Gatty for 
Gertrude, Dallison for d'Alencon. The loss of -r- after 
a vowel is also exemplified by Foster for Forster, 
Pannell and Pennell for Pamell (sometimes), Gdtf/2 for 
Ga^A (p. 124), and Mash for Marsh. To the loss of n 
before s we owe such names as Pattison, Pater son, etc., 
son of Paton, the dim. of Patrick, and Robison for 
Robinson, and also a whole group of names like Jenks 
and Jinks for Jenkins (John), Wilkes for Wilkins, 
Gilkes, Banks, Perks, Hawkes, Jukes for Judkins (p. 58), 
etc. Here I should also include Biggs, which cannot 
be connected with Bigg, for we do not find adjectival 
nicknames with -s. It seems to represent Biggins, 
from obsolete biggin, a building (p. 133). 

The French nasal n often disappeared before r. 
Thus denree, lit. a pennyworth, appears in Anglo- 
French as darree. Similarly Henry became Harry, 
except in Scotland, and the English Kings of that 
name were always called Harry by their subjects. It 
is to this pronunciation that we owe the popularity 
of Harris and Harrison, and the frequency of Welsh 
Parry as compared with Penry. A compromise be- 
tween Henry and Harry is seen in Hanrott, from the 
French dim. Henriot. 

The initial h-, which we regard with such veneration, 
is treated quite arbitrarily in surnames. We find a 
well-known medieval poet called indifferently Occleve 
and Hoccleve. Harnett is the same as Arnett, for 
Arnold, Ewens and Hewens are both from Ewan, cog- 
nate with Evan, of which Heaven is an imitative form. 
In Hoskins, from the medieval Osekin, a dim. of some 
Anglo-Saxon name such as Oswald (p. 69), the aspirate 
has definitely prevailed. The Devonshire name Hexter 


is for Exeter, Arbuckle is a corruption of Harbottle, 
in Northumberland. The Old French name Ancel 
appears as both Ansell and Hansell, and Eamshaw 
exists side by side with H eamshaw (p. no). 

The loss of h is especially common when it is the 
initial letter of a suffix, e.g. Barnum for Barnham, 
Haslam (hazel), Blenkinsop for Blenkin's hope (see 
hope, p. 108), Newatt for Newhall, W indie for Wind 
Hill, Tickell for Tick Hill, in Yorkshire, etc. Pickles 
might be of similar origin, but its oldest form, Pigh- 
keleys, seems to mean rather hill-meadows. A man 
who minded sheep was once called a Shepard, or 
Sheppard, as he still is, though we spell it shepherd. 
The letter w disappears in the same way ; thus Green- 
ish is for Greenwich, Horridge for Horwich, As- 
pinall for Aspinwall, Millard for Millward, the mill- 
keeper, Boxall for Boxwell, Caudle for Cauldwell (cold) ; 
and the Anglo-Saxon names in -win are often confused 
with those in -ing, e.g. Gooding, Goodwin ; Golding, 
Goldwin ; Gunning, Gunwin, etc. In this way 
Harding has prevailed over the once equally common 

Finally, we have to consider what may be called 
baby phonetics, the sound-changes which seem rather 
to transgress general phonetic laws. Young children 
habitually confuse dentals and palatals, thus a child 
may be heard to say that he has " dot a told." This 
tendency is, however, not confined to children. My 
own name, which is a very uncommon one, is a stum- 
bling-block to most people, and when I give it in a 
shop the scribe has generally got as far as Wheat- 
before he can be stopped. We find both A still and 
Askellior the medieval Asketil and Thurtle alternating 
with Thurkle, originally Thurketil (p. 74, n). Berten- 


shaw is found for Birkenshaw, birch wood, Bartley, 
usually from Bartholomew, is sometimes for Berkeley, 
and both Lord Bacon and Horace Walpole wrote Twit- 
nam for Twickenham. Jeff cock, dim. of Geoffrey, be- 
comes Jeffcott, while Glascock is for the local Glascott. 
Here the palatal takes the place of the dental, as in 
Brangwin for Anglo-Sax. Brandwine. Middlemas is 
almost certainly for Michaelmas (see p. 89). We have 
the same change in tiddlebat for stickleback, a word 
which exemplifies another point in baby phonetics, 
viz. the loss of initial s-, as in the classic instance 
tummy. To this loss of s- we owe Pillsbury for the 
local Spilsbury, Pink for Spink, an obsolete word 
for the chaffinch, and, I think, Tout for Stout. The 
name Stacey is found as Tacey in old Notts regis- 
ters. On the other hand, an inorganic s- is some- 
times prefixed, as in Sturgess for the older Turgis. 
For the loss of s- we may compare Shakespeare's 
parmaceti (1 Henry IV. i. 3), and for its addition 
the adjective spruce, from Pruce, i.e. Prussia. 

We also find the infantile confusion between th and 
/, e.g. in Selfe, which represents a personal name Seleth, 
probably from Anglo-Sax. scslft, bliss. Both Selve 
and Selthe occur in the Hundred Rolls. Perhaps also 
in Fripp for Thripp, a variant of Thrupp, for Thorp. 
Bickerstaffe is the name of a place in Lancashire, of 
which the older form appears in Bickersteth, and the 
local name Throgmorton is spelt by Camden Frog- 

Such are some of the commoner phenomena to be 
noticed in connection with the spelling and sound of 
our names. The student must always bear in mind 
that our surnames date from a period when nearly the 
whole population was uneducated. Their modern 


forms depend on all sorts of circumstances, such as 
local dialect, time of adoption, successive fashions 
in pronunciation and the taste and fancy of the 
speller. They form part of our language, that is, 
of a living and ever-changing organism. Some of 
us are old enough to remember the confusion be- 
tween initial v and w which prompted the judge's 
question to Mr. Weller. The vulgar i for a, as in 
" tike the kike," has been evolved within compara- 
tively recent times, as well as the loss of final -g, 
" skootin and huntin," in sporting circles. In the 
word warmint — 

" What were you brought up to be ? " 
" A warmint, dear boy " 

{Great Expectations, ch. xl.), 

we have three phonetic phenomena, all of which have 
influenced the form and sound of modern surnames, 
e.g. in Winter, sometimes for Vinter, i.e. vintner, 
Clark for Clerk, and Bryant for Bryan; and similar 
changes have been in progress all through the history 
of our language. 

In conclusion it may be remarked that the personal 
and accidental element, which has so much to do with 
the development of surnames, releases this branch of 
philology to some extent from the iron rule of the 
phonetician. Of this the preceding pages give examples. 
The 'name, not being subject as other words are to a 
normalizing influence, is easily effected by the tradi- 
tional or accidental spelling. Otherwise Fry would be 
pronounced Free. The is short in Robin and long in 
Probyn, and yet the names are the same (p. 62). Slofier 
and Smoker mean a maker of slops and smocks re- 
spectively, and Smale is an archaic spelling of Small, 
the modern vowel being in each case lengthened by the 


retention of an archaic spelling. The late Professor 
Skeat rejects Bardsley's identification of Waring with 
Old Fr. Garin or Warin, because the original vowel 
and the suffix are both different. But Mainwaring, 
which is undoubtedly from mesnil Warin (p. 142), shows 
Bardsley to be right. 



" Talbots and Stanleys, St. Maurs and such-like folk, have led 
armies and made laws time out of mind ; but those noble families 
would be somewhat astonished — if the accounts ever came to be 
fairly taken — to find how small their work for England has been 
by the side of that of the Browns." 

(Tom Brown's Schooldays, ch. i.) 

Brown, Jones, and Robinson have usurped in popular 
speech positions properly belonging to Smith, Jones 
and Williams. But the high position of Jones and 
Williams is due to the Welsh, who, replacing a string 
of i^s by a simple genitive at a comparatively recent 
date, have given undue prominence to a few very 
common names ; cf. Davies, Evans, etc. If we con- 
sider only purely English names, the triumvirate would 
be Smith, Taylor, and Brown. Thus, of our three com- 
monest names, the first two are occupative and the 
third is a nickname. French has no regular equivalent, 
though Dupont and Durand are sometimes used in this 
way — 

" Si Chateaubriand avait eu nom Durand ou Dupont, qui sait 
si son Ginie du Christianisme n'eut point passe pour une capucinade? ' ' 

(F. Brunetiere) 

The Germans speak of Mutter, Meyer and Schulze, 
all rural names, and it is perhaps characteristic that 
two of them are official. Meyer is an early loan from 
Lat. major, and appears to have originally meant 



something like overseer. Later on it acquired the 
meaning of farmer, in its proper sense of one who farms, 
i.e. manages on a profit-sharing system, the property 
of another. It is etymologically the same as our 
Mayor, Mair, etc. Schulze, a village magistrate, is 
cognate with Ger. Schuld, debt, and our verb shall. 

Taking the different classes of surnames separately, 
the six commonest occupative names are Smith, Taylor, 
Clark, Wright, Walker, Turner. If we exclude Clark, 
as being more often a nickname for the man who could 
read and write, the sixth will be Cooper, sometimes 
spelt Cowper. The commanding position of Smith 
is due to the fact that it was applied to all workers in, 
or smiters of, metal. The modern Smiths no doubt 
include descendants of medieval blacksmiths, white- 
smiths, brownsmiths, locksmiths, and many others, 
but the compounds are not common as surnames. 
We find, however, Shoosmith, Shearsmith, and Nasmyth, 
the last being more probably for earlier Knysmith, i.e. 
knife-smith, than for nail-smith, which was supplanted 
by Naylor. Grossmith I guess to be an accommodated 
form of the Ger. Grobschmied, blacksmith, lit. rough 
smith, and Goldsmith is very often a Jewish name 
for Ger. Goldschmid. Wright, obsolete perhaps as a 
trade name, has given many compounds, including 
Arkwright, a maker of bins, or arks as they were once 
called, Tellwright, a tile maker, and many others which 
need no interpretation. The high position of Taylor 
is curious, for there were other names for the trade, 
such as Seamer, Shapster, Parmenter (p. 170), and 
neither Tailleur nor Letailleur are particularly com- 
mon in French. The explanation is that this name 
has absorbed the medieval Teler and Teller, weaver, 
ultimately belonging to Lat. tela, a web ; cf. the 


very common Fr. Tellier and Letellier. In some 
cases also the Mid. Eng. teygheler, Tyler, has been 
swallowed up. Walker, i.e. trampler, meant a cloth 
fuller, but another origin has helped to swell the 
numbers of the clan — 

" Walkers are such, as are otherwise called foresters. They are 
foresters assigned by the King, who are walkers' within a certain 
space of ground assigned to their care " (Cowel's Interpreter). 

Cooper, a derivative of Lat. cupa or cuppa, a vessel, 
is cognate with the famous French name Cuvier, 
which has given our Cover, though this may also be 
for coverer, i.e. tiler (see p. 155). 

Of occupative names which have also an official 
meaning, the three commonest are Ward, Bailey, and 
Marshall. Ward, originally abstract, is the same word 
asFr. garde. Bailey, Old Fr. bailif (bailli), ranges from 
a Scottish magistrate to a man in possession. It is 
related to bail and to bailey, a ward in a fortress, as in 
Old Bailey. Bayliss appears to be from the Old French 
nominative bailis (p. 9, n.). Marshall (p. 183) may 
stand for a great commander or a shoeing-smith, still 
called farrier-marshal in the army. The first syllable 
is cognate with mare and the second means servant. 
Constable, Lat. comes stabuli, stableman, has a similar 

The commonest local names naturally include none 
taken from particular places. The three commonest 
are Hall, Wood and Green, from residence by the great 
house, the wood, and the village green. Cf . the French 
names Lasalle, Dubois, Dupre. Hall has sometimes 
given Hale and Hales (p. 21), and, in its Old French 
translation, Sale. Next to these come Hill, Moore, 
and Shaw (see p. no) ; but Lee would probably come 


among the first if all its variants were taken into 
account (p. 28). 

Of baptismal names used unaltered as surnames 
the six commonest are Thomas, Lewis, Martin, James, 
Morris, Morgan. Here again the Welsh element is 
strong, and four of these names, ending in -s, belong 
also to the next group, i.e. the class of surnames formed 
from the genitive of baptismal names. The frequent 
occurrence of Lewis is partly due to its being adopted 
as a kind of translation of the Welsh Llewellyn, but 
the name is often a disguised Jewish Levi, and has 
also absorbed the local Lewes. Next to the above 
come Allen, Bennett, Mitchell, all of French introduction. 
Mitchell may have been reinforced by Mickle, the 
northern for Bigg. It is curious that these particu- 
larly common names, Martin, Allen, Bennett (Benedict), 
Mitchell (Michael), have formed comparatively few de- 
rivatives and are generally found in their unaltered 
form. Three of them are from famous saints' names, 
while Allen, a Breton name which came in with the 
Conquest, has probably absorbed to some extent the 
Anglo-Saxon name Alwin (p. 72). Martin is in some 
cases an animal nickname, the marten. Among the 
genitives Jones, Williams, and Davi(e)s lead easily, 
followed by Evans, Roberts, and Hughes, all Welsh in 
the main. Among the twelve commonest names of 
this class those that are not preponderantly Welsh are 
Roberts, Edwards, Harris, Phillips, and Rogers. Another 
Welsh patronymic, Price (p. 66), is among the fifty 
commonest English names. 

The classification of names in -son raises the difficult 
question as. to whether Jack represents Fr. Jacques, or 
whether it comes from Jankin, Jenkin, dim. of John. 1 
1 See E. B. Nicholson, The Pedigree of Jack. 


Taking Johnson and Jackson as separate names, we 
get the order Johnson, Robinson, Wilson, Thompson, 
Jackson, Harrison. The variants of Thompson would 
put it a place or two higher. Names in -kins (see p. 48) 
are of comparatively late appearance and are not so 
common as those in the above classes. It would be 
hard to say which English font-name has given the 
largest number of family names. In Chapter V. will 
be found some idea of the bewildering and multi- 
tudinous forms they assume. It has been calculated, 
I need hardly say by a German professor, that the 
possible number of derivatives from one given name 
is 6,000, but fortunately most of the seeds are abor- 

Of nicknames Brown, Clark, and White are by far 
the commonest. Then comes King, followed by the 
two adjectival nicknames Sharp and Young. 

The growth of towns and facility of communication 
are now bringing about such a general movement 
that most regions would accept Brown, Jones and 
Robinson as fairly typical names. But this was not 
always so. Brown is still much commoner in the north 
than in the south, and at one time the northern Johnson 
and Robinson contrasted with the southern Jones and 
Roberts, the latter being of comparatively modern origin 
in Wales (p. 43). Even now, if we take the farmer class, 
our nomenclature is largely regional, 1 and the direc- 
tories even of our great manufacturing towns represent 
to a great extent the medieval population of the rural 
district around them. The names Daft and Turney, 
well known in Nottingham, appear in the county in 
the Hundred Rolls. Cheetham, the name of a place 
now absorbed in Manchester, is as a surname ten times 

1 See Guppy, Homes of Family Names. 


more numerous there than in London, and the same 
is true of many characteristic north-country names, 
such as the Barraclough, Murgatroyd, and Sugden 
of Charlotte Bronte's Shirley. The transference of 
Murgatroyd (p. in) to Cornwall, in Gilbert and Sulli- 
van's Ruddigore, must have been part of the intentional 
topsy-turvydom in which those two bright spirits 
delighted. Diminutives in -kin, irom the Old Dutch 
suffix -ken, are still found in greatest number on the 
east coast that faces Holland, or in Wales, where they 
were introduced by the Flemish weavers who settled 
in Pembrokeshire in the reign of Henry I. It is in 
the border counties, Cheshire, Shropshire, Hereford, 
and Monmouth, that we find the old Welsh names 
such as Gough, Lloyd, Onion (Enion), Vaughan (p. 216). 
The local Gafip, an opening in the cliffs, is pretty well 
confined to Norfolk, and Puddifoot belongs to Bucks 
and the adjacent counties as it did in 1273. The 
hall changes hands as one conquering race succeeds 
another — 

" Where is Bohun ? Where is de Vere ? The lawyer, the 
farmer, the silk mercer, lies perdu under the coronet, and winks 
to the antiquary to say nothing " (Emerson, English Traits), 

but the hut keeps its ancient inhabitants. The de- 
scendant of the Anglo-Saxon serf who cringed to 
Front de Boeuf now makes way respectfully for Isaac 
of York's motor, perhaps on the very spot where his 
own fierce ancestor first exchanged the sword for the 
ploughshare long before Alfred's day. 



" I was bom in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good 
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of 
Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by mer- 
chandize, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York, from 
whence he married my mother, whose relations were named Robin- 
son, a very good family in that country, and from whom I was called 
Robinson Kreutznaer ; but by the usual corruption of words in 
English, we are now called — nay, we call ourselves and write our 
name — Crusoe " (Robirison Crusoe, ch. i.). 

Any student of our family nomenclature must be 
struck by the fact that the number of foreign names 
now recognizable in England is out of all proportion 
to the immense number which must have been intro- 
duced at various periods of our history. Even the 
expert, who is often able to detect the foreign name in 
its apparently English garb, cannot rectify this dis- 
proportion for us. The number of names of which the 
present form can be traced back to a foreign origin is 
inconsiderable when compared with the much larger 
number assimilated and absorbed by the Anglo-Saxon. 
The great mass of those names of French or Flemish 
origin which do not date back to the Conquest or to 
medieval times are due to the immigration of Protestant 
refugees in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
It is true that many names for which Huguenot ancestry 
is claimed were known in England long before the 
Reformation. Thus, Bulteel is the name of a refugee 
5 49 


family which came from Tournay about the year 1600, 
but the same name is found in the Hundred Rolls 
of 1273. The Grubbe family, according to Burke, came 
from Germany about 1450, after the Hussite persecu- 
tion ; but we find the name in England two centuries 
earlier, " without the assistance of a foreign persecu- 
tion to make it respectable " (Bardsley, Dictionary of 
English Surnames). The Minet family is known to 
be of Huguenot origin, but the same name also figures 
in the Hundred Rolls. The fact is that there was all 
through the Middle Ages a steady immigration of 
foreigners, whether artisans, tradesmen, or adven- 
turers, some of whose names naturally reappear among 
the Huguenots. On several occasions large bodies 
of Continental workmen, skilled in special trades, were 
brought into the country by the wise policy of the 
Government. Like the Huguenots later on, they 
were protected by the State and persecuted by the 
populace, who resented their habits of industry and 

During the whole period of the religious troubles 
in France and Flanders, starting from about the middle 
of the sixteenth century, refugees were reaching this 
country in a steady stream ; but after the Revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes they arrived in thousands, and 
the task of providing for them and helping on their 
absorption into the population became a serious prob- 
lem. Among the better class of these immigrants was 
to be found the flower of French intellect and enter- 
prise, and one has only to look through an Army or 
Navy list, or to notice the names which are prominent 
in the Church, at the Bar, and in the higher walks of 
industry and commerce, to realize the madness of 
Louis XIV. and the wisdom of the English Government. 


Here are a few taken at random from Smiles' s History 
of the Huguenots — Bosanquet, Casaubon, Chenevix 
Trench, Champion de Crespigny, Dalbiac, Delane, 
Dollond, Durand, Fonblanque, Gambier, Garrick, Layard, 
Lefanu, Lefroy, Ligonier, Luard, Martineau, Palairet, 
Perowne, Plimsoll, Riou, Romilly — all respectable and 
many distinguished, even cricket being represented. 
These more educated foreigners usually kept their 
names, sometimes with slight modifications which do 
. not make them unrecognizable. Thus, Bouverie, 
literally " ox-farm," is generally found in its unaltered 
form, though the London Directory has also examples 
of the perverted Buffery. But the majority of the 
immigrants were of the artisan class and illiterate. 
This explains the extraordinary disappearance, in the 
course of two centuries, of the thousands of French 
names which were introduced between 1550 and 1700. 
We have many official lists of these foreigners, and 
in these lists we catch the foreign name in the very act 
of transforming itself into English. This happens 
sometimes by translation, e.g. Poulain became Colt, 
Poisson was reincarnated as Fish, and a refugee bearing 
the somewhat uncommon name Petitceil transformed 
himself into Little-eye, which became in a few genera- 
tions Lidley. But comparatively few surnames were 
susceptible of such simple treatment, and in the great 
majority of cases the name underwent a more or less 
arbitrary perversion which gave it a more English 
physiognomy. Especially interesting from this point 
of view is the list of — " Straungers residing and dwel- 
linge within the city of London and the liberties 
thereof," drawn up in 1618. The names were prob- 
ably taken down by the officials of the different wards, 
who, differing themselves in intelligence and ortho- 


graphy, produced very curious results. As a rule the 
Christian name is translated, while the surname is 
either assimilated to some English form or perverted 
according to the taste and fancy of the individual 
constable. Thus, John Garret, a Dutchman, is prob- 
ably Jan Gerard, and James Flower, a milliner, born in 
Rouen, is certainly Jaques Fleur, or Lafleur. John de 
Cane and Peter le Cane are Jean Duquesne and Pierre 
Lequesne (Norman quene, oak), though the former may 
also have come from Caen. John Buck, from Rouen, 
is Jean Bouc, and A braham Bushell, from Rochelle, was 
probably a Boussel or Boissel. James King and John 
Hill, both Dutchmen, are obvious translations of com- 
mon Dutch names, while Henry Powell, a German, is 
Heinrich Paul. Mary Peacock, from Dunkirk, and 
John Bonner, a Frenchman, I take to be Marie Picot 
and Jean Bonheur, while Nicholas Bellow is surely 
Nicolas Belleau. Michael Leman, born in Brussels, 
may be French Leman or Lemoine, or perhaps German 

To each alien's name is appended that of the 
monarch whose subject he calls himself, but a republic 
is outside the experience of one constable who leaves 
an interrogative blank after Cristofer Switcher, born 
at Swerick (Zurich) in Switcherland. The surname so 
ingeniously created appears to have left no pedagogic 
descendants. In some cases the harassed Bumble 
has lost patience, and substituted a plain English name 
for foreign absurdity. To the brain which christened 
Oliver Twist we owe Henry Price, a subject of the King 
of Poland, Lewis Jackson, a " Portingall," and Alex- 
ander Faith, a steward to the Venice Ambassador, 
born in the dukedom of Florence. 

In the returns made outside the bounds of the city 


proper the aliens have added their own signatures, or 
in some cases made their marks. Jacob Alburtt signs 
himself as Jacob Elbers, and Croft Castell as Kraft 
Kasstls. Harman James is the official translation of 
Hermann Jacobs, Mary Miller of Marija Moliner, and 
John Young of Jan le Jeune. Gyllyam Spease, for 
Wilbert Spirs, seems to be due to a Welsh constable, 
and Chrystyan Wyhelhames, for Cristian Welselm, looks 
like a conscientious attempt at Williams. One registrar, 
with a phonetic system of his own, has transformed 
the Dutch Moll into the Norman-French Maule, and 
has enriched his list with Jannacay Yacopes for Jantje 
Jacobs. Lowe Luddow, who signs himself Louij Ledou, 
seems to be Louis Ledoux. An alien who writes himself 
Jann Eisankraott (Ger. Eisenkraut ?) cannot reasonably 
complain at being transformed into John Isacrocke, but 
the substitution of John Johnson for Jansen Van- 
drusen suggests that this individual's case was taken at 
the end of a long day's work. 

These examples, taken at random, show how the 
French and Flemish names of the humbler refugees 
lost their foreign appearance. In many cases the 
transformation was etymologically justified. Thus, 
some of our Druitts and Drewetts may be descended 
from Martin Druett, the first name on the list. But 
this is probably the common French name Drouet or 
Drouot, assimilated to the English Druitt, which we 
find in 1273. And both are diminutives of Drogo, which 
occurs mDomesdayBook, and is, through Old French, the 
origin of our Drew. But in many cases the name has 
been so deformed that one can only guess at the con- 
tinental original. I should conjecture, for instance, 
that the curious name Shoppee is a corruption of 
Chappuis, the Old French for a carpenter, and that 


Jacob Shophousey, registered as a German cutler, came 
from Schaffhausen. In this particular region of Eng- 
lish nomenclature a little guessing is almost excusable. 
The law of probabilities makes it mathematically cer- 
tain that the horde of immigrants included representa- 
tives of all the very common French family names, 
and it would be strange if Chappuis were absent. 

This process of transformation is still going on in 
a small way, especially in our provincial manufacturing 
towns, in which most large commercial undertakings 
have slipped from the nerveless grasp of the Anglo- 
Saxon into the more capable and prehensile fingers of 
the foreigner — 

" Hilda then learnt that Mrs. Gailey had married a French 

modeller named Canonges . . . and that in course of time the 

modeller had informally changed the name to Cannon, because no 

one in the five towns could pronounce the true name rightly." 

(Arnold Bennett, Hilda Lessways, i. 5.) 

This occurs most frequently in the case of Jewish 
names of German origin. Thus, Lowe becomes Lowe 
or Lyons, Meyer is transformed into Myers, Gold- 
schmid into Goldsmith, Kohn into Cowan, Levy into 
Lee or Lewis, Salamon into Salmon, Hirsch or Hertz 
into Hart, and so on. Sometimes a bolder flight is 
attempted — 

" Leopold Norfolk Gordon had a house in Park Lane, and ever 
so many people's money to keep it up with. As may be guessed 
from his name, he was a Jew." 

(Morley Roberts, Lady Penelope, ch. ii.) 

The Jewish names of German origin which are now 
so common in England mostly date from the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century, when laws were passed 
in Austria, Prussia and Bavaria to compel all Jewish 


families to adopt a fixed surname. Many of them 
chose personal names, e.g. Jakobs, Levy, Moses, for this 
purpose, while others named themselves from their 
place of residence, e.g. Cassel, Speyer (Spires), Hamburg, 
often with the addition of the syllable -er, e.g. Dar- 
mesteter, Homburger. Some families preferred de- 
scriptive names such as Selig (see p 209), Sonnenschein, 
Goldmann, or invented poetic and gorgeous place-names 
such as Rosenberg,, Blumenthal, Goldberg, Lilienfeld. 
The oriental fancy also showed itself in such names as 
Edelstein, jewel, Gluckstein, 1 luck stone, Rubinstein, 
ruby, Goldenkranz, golden wreath, etc. It is owing to 
the existence of the last two groups that our fashion- 
able intelligence is now often so suggestive of a wine- 
list. Among animal names adopted the favourites 
were Adler, eagle, Hirsch, hart, Lowe, lion, and Wolf, 
each of which is used with symbolic significance in 
the Old Testament. 

1 Our Touchstone would seem also to be a nickname. The 
obituary of a Mr. Touchstone appeared in the Manchester Guardian, 
December 12, 1912. 



" Watte vocat, cui Thomme venit, neque Symme retardat, 
Betteque, Gibbe simul, Hyhke venire jubent ; 
Colle furit, quern Geffe juvat nocumenta parantes, 

Cum quibus ad dampnum Wille coire vovet. 
Grigge rapit, dum Dawe strepit, comes est quibus Hobbe, 

Lorkyn et in medio non minor esse putat : 
Hudde ferit, quem Judde terit, dum Tebbe minatur, 
Jakke domosque viros vellit et ense necat." 

(Gowee, On Wat Tyler's Rebellion.) 

Gower's lines on the peasant rebels give us some 
idea of the names which were most popular in the 
fourteenth century, and which have consequently 
impressed themselves most strongly on our modern 
surnames. It will be noticed that one member of 
the modern triumvirate, 1 Harry, or Hal, is absent. 
The great popularity of this name probably dates from 
a rather later period and is connected with the exploits 
of Henry V. Moreover, all the names, with the possible 
exception of Hud, are of French introduction and occur 
rarely before the Conquest. The Old Anglo-Saxon 
names did survive, especially in the remoter parts of 
the country, and have given us many surnames (see 
ch. vii.), but even in the Middle Ages people had a 

1 The three names were not definitely established till the nine- 
teenth century. Before that period they had rivals. French says 
Pierre et Paul, and German Heinz und Kurtz, i.e. Heinrich and 



preference for anything that came over with the 
Conqueror. French names are nearly all of German 
origin, the Celtic names and the Latin names which 
encroached on them having been swept away by the 
Frankish invasion, a parallel to the wholesale adoption 
of Norman names in England. Thus our name Harvey, 
no longer usual as a font-name, is Fr. Herve, which 
represents the heroic German name Hartwig, to the 
second syllable of which belongs such an apparently 
insignificant name as Wigg. The disappearance of 
Latin names is not to be regretted, for the Latin 
nomenclature was of the most unimaginative descrip- 
tion, while the Old German names are more like those 
of Greece. Thus Ger. Ludwig, which has passed into 
most of the European languages (Louis, Lewis, Ludo- 
vico, etc), is from Old High Ger. hlut-wig, renowned 
in fight, equivalent to the Greek Clytomachus, with 
one-half of which it is etymologically cognate. 

Some of the names in Gower's list, e.g. Watte (p. 3), 
Thomme, Symme, Geffe (p. 61), Wille, Jakke, are easily 
recognized. Bette is for Bat, Bartholomew, a name 
which has given Batty, Batten, Bates, Bartle (cf. 
Bartlemas), Bartlett, Badcock, Badman, and many 
other names, but its popularity is not easy to account 
for. Gibbe is for Gilbert. Hick is rimed on Dick 
(p. 62). Colle 1 is for Nicolas. Grig is for Gregory, 
whence Gregson and Scottish Grier. Dawe, for David, 
alternated with Day and Dow, which appear as 
first element in many surnames, though Day has 
another origin (p. 177) and Dow son sometimes belongs 
to the female name Douce, sweet. Hobbe is a rimed 

1 It is doubtful whether Scottish Colin is a dim. of this. It may 
be the same Celtic name which has sometimes given the Irish 


form from Robert. Lorkyn, or Larkin, is for Law- 
rence, for which we also find Law, Lay, and Low, 
whence Lawson, Lowson, Laycock, Locock, etc. For 
Hudde see pp. 3, 75. Judde, from the very popular 
Jordan, has given Judson, Judkins, and the con- 
tracted Jukes. It is probable that Jordan (Fr. 
Jourdain, Ital. Giordano) is an Old German personal 
name mistakenly associated with the sacred river of 
Palestine. Tebbe is for Theobald (p. 4). 

Many people, in addressing a small boy with whom 
they are unacquainted, are in the habit of using Tommy 
as a name to which any small boy should naturally 
answer. In some parts of Polynesia the natives speak 
of a white Mary or a black Mary, i.e. woman, just as the 
Walloons round Mons speak of Marie bon bee, a shrew, 
Marie grognon, a Mrs. Gummidge, Marie quatre langues, 
a chatterbox, and several other Maries still less politely 
described. We have the modern silly Johnny for the 
older silly Billy, while Jack Pudding is in German 
Hans Wurst, John Sausage. Only the very commonest 
names are used in this way, and, if we had no further 
evidence, the rustic Dicky bird, Robin redbreast, Hob 
goblin, Tom tit, Will o' the Wisp, Jack o' lantern, etc., 
would tell us which have been in the past the most 
popular English font-names. During the Middle Ages 
there was a kind of race among half a dozen favourite 
names, the prevailing order being John, William, 
Thomas, Richard, Robert, with perhaps Hugh as sixth. 

Now, for each of these there is a reason. John, a 
favourite name in so many languages (Jean, Johann, 
Giovanni, Evan, Yves, Ivan, etc.), as the name of the 
Baptist and of the favoured disciple, defied even the 
unpopularity of our one King of that name. The 
special circumstances attending the birth and naming 


of the Baptist probably supplied the chief factor in 
its triumph. For some time after the Conquest 
William led easily. We usually adopted the W- form 
from the north-east of France, but Guillaume has also 
supplied a large number of surnames in Gil-, which have 
got inextricably mixed up with those derived from 
Gilbert, Gillian (Juliana), and Giles. Gilman represents 
the French dim. Guillemin, the local-looking Gilham 
is simply Guillaume, and Wilmot corresponds to Fr. 
Guillemot. The doubting disciple held a very in- 
significant place until the shrine of St. Thomas of 
Canterbury became one of the holy places of Christen- 
dom. To Thomas belong Macey, Massie, Machin, 
and Masson, dims, of French aphetic forms, but 
the first two are also local, from Mace or Macey, 
and the second two are sometimes alternative forms 
of Mason. Robert and Richard were both popular 
Norman names. The first was greatly helped by 
Robin Hood and the second by the Lion-Heart. The 
name Hugh was borne by several saints, the most 
famous of whom in England was the child-martyr, 
St. Hugh of Lincoln, said to have been murdered by 
the Jews c. 1250. It had a dim. Huggin and also the 
forms Hew and How, whence Hewett, Hewlett, Howitt, 
Howlett, etc., while from the French dim. Huchon we 
get Hutchin and its derivatives, and also Houchin. 
Hugh also appears in the rather small class of names 
represented by Littlejohn, Meiklejohn, 1 etc. We find 

1 This formation seems to be much commoner in French. In 
the " Bottin " I find Grandblaise, Grandcollot (Nicolas), Grandgeorge, 
Grandgerard, Grandguillaume, Grandguillot, Grandjacques, Grand- 
jean, Grandpenin (Pierre), Grandpierre, Grandremy, Grandvincent, 
and Petitcolin, Petitdemange (Dominique), Petitdidier (Desiderius), 
Petit-Durand, Petit-etienne (Stephen), Petit-Gerard, Petit-Hugue- 
nin, Petitjean, Petitperrin, Petit-Richard. 


Goodhew, Goodhue. Cf. Gaukroger, i.e. awkward Roger, 
and Goodwillie. Goodrich and Goodrich may in some 
cases belong to Richard. Only the very commonest 
names occur in such compounds. 

Most of the other names in Gower's list have been 
prolific. We might add to them Roger, whence Hodge 
and Dodge, Humfrey, which did not lend itself to many 
variations, and Peter, from the French form of which 
we have many derivatives (see p. 32), including per- 
haps the Huguenot Perowne, Fr. Perron, but this 
can also be local, du Perron, the etymology, Lat. 
petra, rock, remaining the same. 

The absence of the great names Alfred x and Edward 
is not surprising, as they belonged to the conquered 
race. Though Edward was revived as the name of a 
long line of Kings, its contribution to surnames has 
been small, most names in Ed-, Ead-, e.g. Ede, Eden, 
Edison, Edkins, Eady, etc., belonging rather to the 
once popular female name Eda or to Edith, though in 
some cases they are from Edward or other Anglo-Saxon 
names having the same initial syllable. James is a 
very rare name in medieval rolls, being represented by 
Jacob, and no doubt partly by Jack (see p. 46). It is — 

" Wrested from Jacob, the same as Jago 2 in Spanish, Jaques in 
French ; which some Frenchified English, to their disgrace, have 
too much affected " (Camden). 

It appears in Gimson, Jemmett, and the odd-looking 
Gem, while its French' form is somewhat disguised in 
Jeakes and Jex. 

1 The name A lured is due to misreading of the older Alvred, v 
being written « in old MSS. Allfrey is from the Old French form 
of the name. 

2 J ago is found, with other Spanish names, in Cornwall ; cf. 
Bastian or Basten, for Sebastian. 


The force of royal example is seen in the popularity 
under the Angevin kings of Henry, or Harry, Geoffrey 
and Fulk, the three favourite names in that family. 
For Harry see p. 38. Geoffrey, from Ger. Gottfried, 
Godfrey, has given us a large number of names in 
Geff-, Jeff-, and Giff-, Jiff-, and probably also Jebb, 
Gepp and Jepson, while to Fulk we owe Fewkes, 
Foakes, Fowkes, Vokes, etc., and perhaps in some cases 
Fox. But it is impossible to catalogue all the popular 
medieval font-names. Many others will be found 
scattered through this book as occasion or association 
suggests them. 

Three names whose poor representation is sur- 
prising are Arthur, Charles and George, the two great 
Kings of medieval romance and the patron saint of 
Merrie England. All three are fairly common in 
their unaltered form, and we find also Arter. But 
they have given hardly any derivatives, though 
Atkins, generally from Ad-, i.e. Adam, may some- 
times be from Arthur (cf. Bat for Bart, Matty for 
Martha, etc.). Arthur is a rare medieval font- 
name, a fact no doubt due to the sad fate of King 
John's nephew. Its modern popularity dates from 
the Duke of Wellington, while Charles and George were 
raised from obscurity by the Stuarts and the Bruns- 
wicks. To these might be added the German name 
Frederick, the spread of which was due to the fame 
of Frederick the Great. It gave, however, in French 
the dissimilated Ferry, one source of our surnames 
Ferry, 1 Ferris, though the former is generally local. 

1 " For Frideric, the English have commonly used Frery and 
Fery, which hath been now a long time a Christian name in the 
ancient family of Tilney, and lucky to their house, as they report." 



If, on the other hand, we take from Gower's list a 
name which is to-day comparatively rare, e.g. Gil- 
bert, we find it represented by a whole string of sur- 
names, e.g. Gibbs, Gibson, Gibbon, Gibbins, Gilbey, 
Gilpin, Gipps, to mention only the most familiar. 
From the French dim. Gibelot we get the rather rare 
Giblett ; cf . Hewlett for Hew-el-et, Hamlet for Ham-el-et 
(Hamo), etc. 

In forming patronymics from personal names, it is 
not always the first syllable that is selected. In Toll, 
Tolley, Tollett, from Bartholomew, the second has sur- 
vived, while Philpot, dim. of Philip, has given Potts. 
From Alexander we get Sanders and Saunders. But, 
taking, for simplicity, two instances in which the first 
syllable survived, we shall find plenty of instruction 
in those two pretty men Robert and Richard. We 
have seen (p. 60) that Roger gave Hodge and Dodge, 
which, in the derivatives Hodson and Dodson have 
coalesced with names derived from Odo and the 
Anglo-Sax. Dodda (p. 76). Similarly Robert gave 
Rob, Hob 1 and Dob, and Richard gave Rick, Hick 
and Dick. Hob, whence Hobbs, was sharpened into 
Hop, whence Hopps. The diminutive Hopkin, passing 
into Wales, gave Popkin, just as ap-Robin became 
Probyn, ap-Hugh Pugh, ap-Owen Bowen, etc. In 
the north Dobbs became Dabbs (p. 31). Hob also 
developed another rimed form Nob (cf. to " hob-nob " 
with anyone), whence Nobbs and Nabbs, the latter, 
of course, being sometimes rimed on Abbs, from Abel 
or Abraham. Bob is the latest variant and has 
not formed many surnames. Richard has a larger 
family than Robert, for, besides Rick, Hick and 

1 I believe, however, that Hob is in some cases from Hubert, 
whence Hubbard, Hibbert, Hobart, etc. 


Dick, we have Rich and Hitch, Higg and Digg. The 
reader will be able to continue this genealogical tree 
for himself. 

The full or the shortened name can become a 
surname, either without change, or with the addition 
of the genitive -s or the word -son, 1 the former more 
usual in the south, the latter in the north. To take 
a simple case, we find as surnames William, Will, 
Williams, Wills, Williamson, Wilson. From the short 
form we get diminutives by means of the English 
suffixes -ie or -y (these especially in the north), -kin, 
and the French suffixes -el, -ot (often becoming -at in 
English), -in, -on (often becoming -en in English). 
Thus Willy, Wilkin, Willett. I give a few examples of 
surnames formed from each class — 

Ritchie (Richard), Oddy (Odo, whence also Oates), 
Lambie ! (Lambert), Jelley (Julian) ; 

Dawkins, Dawkes (David), Hawkins, Hawkes (Hal), 
Gifkins (Geoffrey), Perkins, Perks (Peter), Rankin 
(Randolf) ; 

Gillett (Gil, see p. 59), Collett (Nicholas), Bartlett 
(Bartholomew), Ricketts (Richard), Marriott, Marry at 
(Mary), Elliott (Elias, see p. 85), Wyatt (Guy), Perrott 
(Peter) ; 

Collins (Nicholas), Jennings (John, see p. 95), 
Copping (Jacob, see p. 9), Rawlin (Raoul, the French 
form of Radolf, whence Rolf, Ralph, Relf), Paton 
(Patrick), Sisson (Siss, i.e. Cecilia), Gibbons (Gilbert), 
Beaton (Beatrice). 

1 This suffix has squeezed out all the others, though Alice Johnson 
is theoretically absurd. In Mid. English we find daughter, father, 
mother, brother and other terms of relationship used in this way, 
e.g., in 1379, Agnes Dyconwyfdowson, the wife of Dow's son Dick. 
Dawbarn, child of David, is still found. See also p. 193. 

2 Lamb is also, of course, a nickname ; cf. Agnew, Fr. agneau. 


In addition to the suffixes and diminutives already 
mentioned, we have the two rather puzzling endings 
-man and -cock. Man occurs as an ending in several 
Germanic names which are older than the Conquest, 
e.g. Ashman, Harman, Coleman, and the simple Mann 
is also an Anglo-Saxon personal name. It is some- 
times to be taken literally, e.g. in Goodman, i.e. master 
of the house (Matt. xx. n), Longman, Youngman, 
etc. In Hickman, Roman (How, Hugh), etc., it may 
mean servant of, as in Ladyman, Priestman, or may 
be merely an augmentative suffix. In Coltman, 
Runciman, it is occupative, the man in charge of the 
colts, rouncies or nags. Chaucer's shipman — 

"Rood upon a rouncy as he kouthe" (A. 390). 

In Bridgeman, Pullman, it means the man who lived 
near, or had some office in connection with, the bridge 
or pool. But it is often due to the imitative instinct. 
Dedman is for the local Debenham, and Lakeman for 
Lakenham, while Wyman represents the old name 
Wymond, and Bowman and Beeman are sometimes for 
the local Beaumont (cf. the pronunciation of Bel voir). 
But the existence in German of the name Bienemann 
shows that Beeman may have meant bee-keeper. 
Sloman is either imitative for Solomon or means the 
man in the slough (p. 113), and Godliman is an old 
familiar spelling of Godalming. We of course get 
doubtful cases, e.g. Sandeman may be, as explained 
by Bardsley, the servant of Alexander (p. 62), but 
it may equally well represent Mid. Eng. sandeman, 
a messenger, and Lawman, Layman, are rather to be 
regarded as derivatives of Lawrence (p. 58) than 
what they appear to be. 

Many explanations have been given of the suffix 


-cock, but I cannot say that any of them have convinced 
me. Both Cock and the patronymic Cocking are found 
as early personal names. The suffix was added to the 
shortened form of font-names, e.g. Alcock (Allen), 
Hitchcock (Richard), was apparently felt as a mere 
diminutive, and took an -s like the diminutives 
in -kin, e.g. Willcocks, Simcox. In Hedgecock, 
Woodcock, etc., it is of course a nickname. The 
modern Cox is one of our very common names, and 
the spelling Cock, Cocks, Cox, can be found repre- 
senting three generations in the churchyard of Inver- 
gowrie, near Dundee. 

The two names Bawcock and Meacock had once a 
special significance. Pistol, urged to the breach by 
Fluellen, replies — 

" Good bawcock, bate thy rage ! use lenity, sweet chuck" 

[Henry V., iii. 2); 

and Petruchio, pretending that his first interview with 
Katherine has been most satisfactory, says — 

" 'Tis a. world to see 
How tame, when men and women are alone, 
A meacock wretch can make the curstest shrew." 

(Taming of the Shrew, ii. i.) 

These have been explained as Fr. beau coq, which is 
possible, and meek cock, which is absurd. As both 
words are found as surnames before Shakespeare's 
time, it is probable that they are diminutives which 
were felt as suited to receive a special connotation, 
just as a man who treats his thirst generously is 
vulgarly called a Lushington. Bawcock, Bocock, can 
easily be connected with Baldwin, while Meacock, 
Maycock, belong to the personal name May or Mee, 
shortened from the Old Fr. Mahieu (p. 86). 


Although we are not dealing with Celtic names, 
a few words as to the Scottish, Irish, and Welsh sur- 
names which we find in our directories may be useful. 
Those of Celtic origin are almost invariably patrony- 
mics. The Scottish and Irish Mac, used like the Anglo- 
Fr. Fitz-, means relative, and is ultimately related to 
the -mough of Watmough (see p. 193) and to the word 
maid. In MacNab, son of the abbot, and Mac- 
Pherson, son of the parson, we have curious hybrids. 
In Manx names, such as Quilliam (Mac William), 
Kittip (Mac Philip), Clucas (Mac Lucas), we have 
aphetic forms of Mac. The Irish 0' has the same 
meaning as Mac, and is related to the first part of 
Ger. Oheim, uncle, of Anglo-Sax. earn (see Eames, 
p. 193), and of Lat. avus, grandfather. Oe or oye is 
still used for grandchild in Scottish — 

" There was my daughter's wean, little Eppie Daidle, my oe, ye 
ken " (Heart of Midlothian, ch. iv.). 

The names of the Lowlands of Scotland are pretty 
much the same as those of northern England, with 
the addition of a very large French element, due 
to the close historical connection between the two 
countries. Examples of French names, often much 
corrupted, are Bethune (Pas de Calais), often cor- 
rupted into Beaton, the name of one of the Queen's 
Maries, Boswell (Bosville, Seine Inf.), Bruce (Brieux, 
Orne), Comyn, Cumming (Comines, Nord), Grant (le 
grand), Rennie (Rene), etc. 

Welsh Ap or Ab, reduced from an older Map, ulti- 
mately cognate with Mac, gives us such names as Pro- 
byn, Powell (Howell, Hoel), Price (Rhys), Pritchard, 
Prosser (Rosser), Pr other (Roderick), Bedward, Beddoes 
(Eddowe), Blood (Lud, Lloyd), Bethell (Ithel), Benyon 


(Enion), whence also Bunyan and the local-looking 
Baynham. Onion and Onions are imitative forms of 
Enion. Applejohn and Upjohn are corruptions of 
Ap-john. The name Floyd, sometimes Flood, is due to 
the English inability to grapple with the Welsh LI — 

" I am a gentylman and come of Brutes [Brutus'] blood, 

My name is ap Ryce, ap Davy, ap Flood." 
(Andrew Boorde, Book of the Introduction of Knowledge, ii. 7.) 

While Welsh names are almost entirely patronymic, 
Cornish names are very largely local. They are dis- 
tinguished by the following prefixes and others of less 
common occurrence: Caer-, fort, Lan-, church, Pen-, 
hill, Pol-, pool, Ros-, heath, Tre-, settlement, e.g. 
Carthew, Lanyon, Penruddock, Polwarth, Rosevear, 
Trethewy. Sometimes these elements are found com- 
bined, e.g. in Penrose. 

A certain number of Celtic nicknames and occupa- 
tive names which are frequently found in England will 
be mentioned elsewhere (pp. 173, 216). In Gilchrist, 
Christ's servant, Gildea, servant of God, Gillies, servant 
of Jesus, Gillespie, bishop's servant, Gilmour, big ser- 
vant, Gilroy, red servant, we have the Highland "gillie." 
Such names were originally preceded by Mac-, e.g. 
Gilroy is the same as Macllroy ; cf . MacLean, for Mac- 
gil-ian, son of the servant of John. To the same 
class of formation belong Scottish names in Mai, e.g. 
Malcolm, and Irish names in Mul, e.g. Mulholland, in 
which the first element means tonsured servant, 
shaveling, and the second is the name of a saint. 



" England had now once more (a.d. iioo) a King born on her 
own soil, a Queen of the blood of the hero Eadmund, a King and 
Queen whose children would trace to Alfred by two descents. 
Norman insolence mocked at the English King and his English 
Lady under the English names of Godric and Godgifu." 1 

(Freeman, Norman Conquest, v. 170.) 

In dealing with surnames we begin after the Conquest, 
for the simple reason that there were no surnames 
before. Occasionally an important person has come 
down in history with a nickname, e.g. Edmund Iron- 
side, Harold Harefoot, Edward the Confessor ; but this 
is exceptional, and the Anglo-Saxon, as a rule, was satis- 
fied with one name. It is probable that the majority 
of names in use before the Conquest, whether of English 
or Scandinavian origin, were chosen because of their 
etymological meaning, e.g. that the name Beornheard 
(Bernard, Barnard, Burnett) was given to a boy in the 
hope that he would grow up a warrior strong, just as 
his sister might be called iEthelgivu, noble gift. 
The formation of these old names is both interesting 
and, like all Germanic nomenclature, poetic. 

As a rule the name consists of two elements, and the 
number of those elements which appear with great 
frequency is rather limited. Some themes occur only 

1 " Godricum eum, et comparem Godgivam appellantes " 
(William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Anglorum). 



in the first half of the name, e.g. Mthel-, whence ^Ethel- 
stan, later Alston ; Mlf-, whence .ZElfgar, now Elgar 
and Agar {Mthel- and Mlf- soon got confused, so that 
Allvey and Elvey may represent either ^Ethelgifu or 
jElfgifu, or, Latinized, Ethelgiva and Elgiva); Cuth-, 
whence Cuthbeald, now Cobbold 1 ; Cyne-, whence Cyne- 
beald, now Kimball and Kemble, both of which are 
also local ; Folc-, whence Folcheard and Folchere, now 
Folkard and Fulcher; Gun-, whence Gundred, now 
Gundry and Grundy (p. 37) ; Os~, whence Osbert, Osborn, 
Osgood. Other themes only occur as the second half 
of the name. Such are -gifu, in Godgifu, i.e. Godiva, 
whence Goodeve ; -lac in Guthlac, now Goodlake and 
Goodluck (p. 197) ; -laf in Deorlaf, now Dearlove ; 
-wacer in Euerwacer, now Earwaker. 

Other themes, and perhaps the greater number, 
may occur indifferently first and second, e.g. beald, 
god, here, sige, weald, win, wulf or ulf. Thus we have 
complete reversals in Bealdwine, whence Baldwin, and 
Winebeald, whence Winbolt, Hereweald, whence Herald, 
Harold, Harrod, and Wealdhere, whence Walter (p. 3). 
With these we may compare Goldman and Mangold, 
the latter of which has given Mangles. So also we have 
Sigeheard, whence Siggers, and Wulfsige, now Wolsey, 
Wulfnoth, now the imitative Wallnutt, and Beorht- 
wulf, later Bardolph and Bardell. The famous name 
Havelock was borne by the hero of a medieval epic, 
"Havelock the Dane," but. Dunstan is usually for the 
local -Dunston. . On the other hand, Winston is a per- 
sonal name, Winestan, whence Winstanley. . 
"- These examples show that the pre-Norman names 
are by no means unrepresented in, the twentieth 

"* This is also the origin of Cupples,a.tid probably of Keble and 
Kibbles. It shares Cobbett and Cubitt with Cuthbeorht. 


century, but, in this matter, one must proceed with 
caution. To take as examples the two names that 
head this chapter, there is no doubt that Goderic and 
Godiva are now represented by Goodrich and Goodeve, 
but these may also belong to the small group mentioned 
on p. 59, and stand for good Richard and good Eve. 
Also Goodrich comes in some cases from Goodrich, 
formerly Gotheridge, in Hereford, which has also 
given Gutteridge. Moreover, it must not be forgotten 
that our medieval nomenclature is preponderantly 
French, as the early rolls show beyond dispute, so that, 
even where a modern name appears susceptible of an 
Anglo-Saxon explanation, it is often safer to refer it 
to the Old French cognate, for the Germanic names 
introduced into France by the Frankish conquerors, and 
the Scandinavian names which passed into Normandy, 
contained very much the same elements as our own 
native names, but underwent a different phonetic 
development. Thus I would rather explain Bawden, 
Bowden, Boulden, Boden, and the dims. Body and 
Bodkin, as Old French variants from the Old Ger. 
Baldawin than as coming directly from Anglo-Saxon. 
Boyden undoubtedly goes back to Old Fr. Baudouin. 
Practically all the names given in Gower's lines 
(p. 56), and many others to which I have ascribed a 
continental origin, are found occasionally in England 
before the Conquest, but the weight of evidence shows 
that they were either adopted in England as French 
names or were corrupted in form by the Norman 
scribes and officials. To take other examples, our 
Tibbald, Tibbies, Tibbs suggest the Fr. Thibaut rather 
than the natural development of Anglo-Sax. Thiud- 
beald, i.e. Theobald ; and Ralph, Relf, Roff, etc., show 
the regular Old French development of Rjedwulf, 


Radolf. Tibaut Wauter, i.e. Theobald Walter, who 
lived in Lancashire in 1242, had both his names in 
Old French. 

As a matter of fact, the various ways of forming 
nicknames, or descriptive names, are all used in the 
pre-Conquest personal names. We find Orme, i.e. ser- 
pent or dragon (cf. Great Orme's Head), Wulf, i.e. 
Wolf, Hwita, i.e. White, and its derivative Hwiting, 
now Whiting, Ssemann, i.e. Seaman, Bonda, i.e. Bond, 
Leofcild, dear child, now Leifchild, etc. But, except 
in the case of Orme, so common as the first element of 
place-names, I doubt the survival of these personal 
names into the surname period and regard White, 
Seaman, Bond, Leifchild as rather new epithets of 
Mid. English formation.. Whiting is of course Anglo- 
Saxon, -ing being the regular patronymic suffix. Cf. 
Browning, Benning, Dering, Dunning, Gunning, 
Hemming, Kipping, Manning, Spalding, and many 
others which occur in place-names. But not all 
names in -ing are Anglo-Saxon, e.g. Baring is 
German ; cf. Behring, of the Straits, while Jobling 
is Fr. Jobelin, a double dim. of Job. 

I will now give a few examples of undoubted sur- 
vival of these Anglo-Saxon compounds, showing how 
the suffixes have been corrupted and simplified. 
Among the commonest of these suffixes are -beald, 
-beorht, -cytel (p. 74, n.), -god, -heard, -here, -man, -mund, 
-reed, -ric, -weald, -weard, -wine, 1 which survive in 
Rumball and Rumbold (Rumbeald), Allbright* and 
Allbutt (Ealdbeorht, i.e. Albert), Arkle (Earncytel), All- 
good and Elgood (.<Elfgod), Everett (Eoforheard, i.e. 

1 Bold, bright, kettle, good, strong, army, man, protection, 
counsel, powerful, ruling, guard, friend. 

2 Albert is of modern German introduction. 


Everard), Gunter (Gundhere), Harman (Hereman), 
Redmond '(Raedmund), Aldred {Mthelrzzd or Ealdraed), 
Aldridge, and the perversion Allwright (iEthelric 
or Ealdric), Thorold (Thurweald) . and, through Fr. 
Turold, Turrell, Terrell, and Tyrrell, Harward and 
Harvard (Hereweard), Lewin (Leofwine). In popular 
use some of these endings got confused, e.g. Rumbold 
probably sometimes represents Rumweald, while Ken- 
nard no doubt stands for Coenweard as well as for 
Ccenheard. Man and mund were often interchanged 
(p. 64) , so that from Eastmund come both Esmond and 
Eastman. Gorman represents Gormund, and Almond 
(p. 97) is so common in the Middle Ages that it must 
sometimes be from ^Ethelmund. 

Sometimes the modern forms are imitative. Thus 
Allchin is for Alcuin, and Goodyear* Goodier and 
Goodair represent Godhere, while Goodbeer, Godbehere, 
Gotobed are classed by Bardsley under Godbeorht, 
which has also given Godber. But in these three names 
the face value of the words can also be accepted 
(PP- x 53, 203, 206). Wisgar or Wisgeard has given the 
imitative Whisker and Vizard, and, through French, 
the Scottish Wishart, which is thus the same as the 
famous Norman Guiscard. Garment and Rayment are 
for Garmund and Regenmund, i.e. Raymond. 

Other names which can be traced directly to the 
group of Anglo-Saxon names dealt with above are 
Elphick (^Elfheah), which in Norman French gave 
Alphege, Elmer (^Elfmaer), Allnutt (iElfnoth), Alwin, 
Elwin, Elvin (^Elfwine), Aylmer (^Ethelmasr), Aylward 

1 Pure Anglo-Saxon, like the names of so many opponents of 
English tyranny. Parnell is of course not Irish (p. 94). 

2 This may, however, be taken literally. There is a German name 
Gutjahr and a. Norfolk name Feaveryear. 


(iEthelweard), Kenrick (Ccenric), Collard (Ceolheard), 
Colvin (Ceolwine), Darwin (Deorwine), Edridge (Eadric), 
Aldwin, Auden, and the patronymic Alder son (Eald- 
wine), Falstaff (Fastwulf), F timer (Filumaer), Frewin 
(Freowine), Garrard, Garrett, Jarrold (Gaerheard, Gser- 
weald), but probably these are through French, Garbett 
(Garbeald, which, in Italian, became Garibaldi), Gatliffe 
(Geatleof), Goddard (Godheard), Goodliffe (Godleof), 
Gunnell (Gunhild), Gunner L (Gunhere), Haines 
(Hagene), Haldane (Haelfdene), Hastings (Haesten, the 
Danish chief who gave his name to Hastings, formerly 
Haestinga-ceaster), Herbert (Herebeorht), Herrick 
(Hereric), Hildyard (Hildegeard) , Hubert, Hubbard, 
Hobart, Hibbert (Hygebeorht), Ingram (Ingelram), 
Lambert (Landbeorht), Lugard (Leofgar), Lemon 
(Leofman), Leveridge (Leofric), Loveridge (Luferic), 
Maynard (Maegenheard), Maidment (Maegenmund), 
Rayner (Regenhere), Raymond (Regenmund), Reynolds 
(Regenweald), Seabright (Sigebeorht and Saebeorht), 
Sayers* (Saegaer), Sewell (Saeweald or Sigeweald), 
Seward (Sigeweard), Turbot (Thurbeorht), Thorough- 
good (Thurgod), Walthew (Waltheof), Warman (Wser- 
mund), Wyberd (Wigbeorht), Wyman (Wigmund), 
Willard (Wilheard), Winfrey (Winefrith), Ulyett and 
Woollett (Wulfgeat), Wolmer (Wulfmaer), Woolridge 

l . It is unlikely that this name is connected with gun, a word of 
too late appearance. It may be seen over a shop in Brentford, 
perhaps kept by a descendant of the thane" of the adjacent Gunners-" 
bury. ,...';. 

a The simple Sayer is also for " assayer," either of metals or of 
meat and drink — " essayeur, an essayer; one that tasts, or takes 
an essay ; and particularly, an officer in the mint, who touches every 
kind of new coyne before it be delivered out " (Cotgravgj, Robert' 
le gayer, goldsmith, was a London citizen c. 1300. 


In several of these, e.g. Fulcher, Hibbert, Lambert, 
Reynolds, the probability is that the name came 
through French. Where an alternative explanation is 
possible, the direct Anglo-Saxon origin is generally the 
less probable. Thus, although Colling occurs as an 
Anglo-Saxon name, Collings is generally a variant of 
Collins (cf. Jennings for Jennins), and though Ham- 
mond is etymologically Haganmund, it is better 
to connect it with the very popular French form 
Hamon. Simmonds might come from Sigemund, but 
is more likely from Simon with excrescent -d (see 

P- 35). 

In many cases the Anglo-Saxon name was a simplex 
instead of a compound. The simple Cytel 1 survives 
as Chettle, Kettle, Chell, Kell, whence Kelsey (see ey, 
p. 116). Brand also appears as Braund, Grim is common 
in place-names, and from Grima we have Grimes. 
Cola gives Cole, the name of a monarch of ancient 
legend, to be distinguished from the derivatives of 
Nicolas (p. 57), Gunna is now Gunn, Serl has given 
the very common Searle, and Wicga is Wigg. From 
Haco we have Hack and the dim. Hackett. 

To these might be added many examples of pure 
adjectives, such as Freo, Free, Froda (prudent), Froude, 
Goda, Good, Leof (dear), Leif, Leaf, Read (red), Read, 
Reid, Reed, Rica, Rich, Rudda (ruddy), Rudd and Rodd, 
Snel (swift, valiant), Snell, Swet, Sweet, etc., or epithets 
such as Boda (messenger), Bode, Cempa (warrior), 
Kemp, Cyta, Kite, Dreng (warrior), Dring, Eorl, Earl, 
Godcild, Goodchild, Nunna, Nunn, Oter, Otter, Puttoc 

1 Connected with the kettle or cauldron of Norse mythology. The 
renowned Captain Kettle, described by his creator as a Welshman, 
must have descended from some hardy Norse pirate. Many names, 
in this chapter are Scandinavian. 


(kite), Puttock, Sasfugel, Seafowl, Spearhavoc, Spar- 
hawk, Spark (p. 12), Tryggr (true), Triggs, Unwine 
(unfriend), Unwin, etc. But most of these had died 
out as personal names and, in medieval use, were 
nicknames pure and simple. 

Finally, there is a very large group of Anglo-Saxon 
dissyllabic names, usually ending in -a, which appear 
to be pet forms of the longer names, though it is not 
always possible to establish the connection. Many of 
them have double forms with a long and short vowel 
respectively. It is to this class that we must refer 
the large numbers of our monosyllabic surnames, 
which would otherwise defy interpretation. Anglo- 
Sax. Dodda gave Dodd, while Dodson's partner 
Fogg had an ancestor Focga. Other examples are 
Bacga, Bagg, Benna, Benn, Bota, Boot and dim. 
Booty, Botta, Bott, whence Batting, Bubba, Bubb, 
Budda, Budd, Bynna, Binns, Cobba, Cobb, Coda, Coad, 
Codda, Codd, Cuffa, Cuff, Deda, Deedes, Duda, Dowd, 
Duna, Down, Dunna, Dunn, Dutta, Dutt, whence Dut- 
ton, Eada, Eade, Edes, etc., Ebba, Ebbs, Eppa, Epps, 
Hudda, Hud, whence Hudson, Inga, Inge, Sibba, 
Sibbs, Sicga, Siggs, Tata, Tate and Tait, Tidda, Tidd, 
Tigga, Tigg, Toca, Tooke, Tucca, Tuck, Wada, Wade, 
Wadda, Waddy, etc. Similarly French took from 
German a number of surnames formed from shortened 
names in -0, with an accusative in -on, e.g. Old Ger. 
Bodo has given Fr. Bout and Bouton, whence our 
Butt and Button. 

But the names exemplified above are very thinly 
represented in early records, and, though their exist- 
ence in surnames derived from place-names (Dodsley, 
Bagshaw, Bensted, Budworth, Cobham, Ebbsworth, etc.) 
would vouch for them even if they were not recorded, 


their comparative insignificance is attested by the fact 
that they form very few derivatives. Compare, for 
instance, the multitudinous surnames which go back 
to monosyllables of the later type of name, such as 
John and Hugh, with the complete sterility of the 
names above. Therefore, when an alternative deriva- 
tion for a surname is possible, it is usually ten to one 
that this alternative is right. Dodson is a simplified 
Dodgson, from Roger (p. 62) ; Benson belongs to 
Benedict, sometimes to Benjamin ; Cobbett is a dis- 
guised Cuthbert or Cobbold (cf. Garrett, p. 17) ; Down 
is usually local, at the down or dune ; Dunn is 
medieval le dun, a colour nickname ; names in Ead-, 
Ed-, are usually from the medieval female name 
Eda (p. 60) ; Sibbs generally belongs to Sybilla or 
Sebastian ; Tait must sometimes be for Fr. Tete, 
probably from an inn sign ; Tidd is an old pet form 
of Theodore ; and Wade is more frequently at wade, 
i.e. ford. Even Ebbs and Efps are much more likely 
to be shortened forms of Isabella, usually reduced to 
lb or Ibbot (p. 94). 

To sum up, we may say that the Anglo-Saxon ele- 
ment in our surnames is much larger than one would 
imagine from Bardsley's Dictionary, and that it 
accounts, not only for names which have a distinctly 
Anglo-Saxon suffix or a disguised form of one, but also 
for a very large number of monosyllabic names which 
survive in isolation and without kindred. In this 
chapter I have only given sets of characteristic examples, 
to which many- more might be added. It would be 
comparatively easy, with some imagination and a 
conscientious neglect of evidence, to connect the 
greater number of our surnames with the Anglo- 
Saxons. : Thus Honeyball might very well represent 


the Anglo-Sax. Hunbeald, but, in the absence of links, 
it is better to regard it as a popular perversion of 
Hannibal (p. 82). In dealing with this subject, the 
via media is the safe one, and one cannot pass in one 
stride from Hengist and Horsa to the Reformation 

Matthew Arnold, in his essay on the Function of 
Criticism at the Present Time, is moved by the case of 
poor Wragg, who was " in custody," to the following 
wail — 

" What a touch of grossness in our race, what an original short- 
coming in the more delicate spiritual perceptions, is shown by the 
natural growth amongst us of such hideous names — Higgiribottom, 
Stiggins, Bugg 1 " 

But this is the poet's point of view. Though there 
may have been "no Wragg by the Ilissus," it is not a 
bad name, for, in its original form Ragg, it is the first 
element of the heroic Ragnar, and probably unrelated to 
Raggett, which is the medieval le ragged. Bugg, which 
one family exchanged for Norfolk. Howard, is the 
Anglo-Saxon Bucga, a name no doubt borne by many 
a valiant warrior. Stiggins, as we have seen (p. 12), 
goes back to a name great in history, and Higgin- 
bottom (p. 114) is purely geographical. 



"Morz est Rollanz, Deus en ad 1'anme es ciels. 
Li Emperere en Rencesvals parvient. . . . 
Carles escriet : ' U estes vus, bels nies ? 
U l'Arcevesques e li quens Oliviers ? 
U est Gerins e sis cumpainz Geriers ? 
Otes u est e li quens Berengiers ? 
Ives e Ivories que j'aveie tant chiers ? 
Qu'est devenuz li Guascuinz Engeliers, 
Sansun li dux e Anseis li fiers ? 
U est Gerarz de Russillun li vielz, 
Li duze per que j'aveie laissiet ? ' " * 

(Chanson de Roland, 1. 2397.) 

It is natural that many favourite names should be 
taken from those of heroes of romance whose exploits 
were sung all over Europe by wandering minstrels. 
Such names, including those taken from the Round 
Table legends, usually came to us through French, 
though a few names of the British heroes are Welsh, 
e.g. Cradock from Caradoc (Caractacus) and Maddox 
from Madoc. But the Round Table stories were 

1 " Dead is Roland, God has his soul in heaven. The Emperor 
arrives at Roncevaux. . . . Charles cries : ' Where are you, fair 
nephew ? Where the archbishop (Turpin) and Count Oliver ? 
Where is Gerin and his comrade Gerier ? Where is Odo and count 
Berenger ? Ivo and Ivory whom I held so dear ? What has become 
of the Gascon Engelier ? Samson the duke and Anseis the proud ? 
Where is Gerard of Roussillon the old, the twelve peers whom I 
had left ->.'" 



versified much later than the true Old French Chansons 
de Geste, which had a basis in the national history, and 
not many of Arthur's knights are immortalized as sur- 
names. We have Tristram, Lancelot, whence Lance, 
Percival, Gawain in Gavin, and Kay. But the last 
named is, like Key, more usually from the word we now 
spell " quay," though Key and Keys can also be shop- 
signs, as of course Crosskeys is. Linnell and Lyell are 
for Lionel, as Neil, 1 Neal for Nigel. The ladies have 
fared better. Vivian, which is sometimes from the 
masculine Vivien, is found in Dorset as Vye. and Isolt 
and Guinevere, which long survived as font-names in 
Cornwall, have given several names. From Isolt 
come Isard, Isitt, Izzard, Izod, and many other forms, 
while Guinever appears as Genever, Jennifer, Gaynor, 
Gilliver, Gulliver, i and the imitative Juniper. It is 
probably also the source of Genn and Ginn, though 
these may come also from Eugenia or from Jane. 
The later prose versions of the Arthurian stories, such 
as those of Malory, are full of musical and picturesque 
names like those used by Mr. Maurice Hewlett, but 
this artificial nomenclature has left no traces in our 

Of the paladins the most popular was Roland or 
Rowland, who survives as Rome, Rowlinson, Rolls, 
Rollit, etc., sometimes coalescing with the derivations 
of Raoul, another epic hero. Gerin or Geri gave Geary, 
and Oates is the nominative (see p. 80, n. 1) of Odo, an 
important Norman name. Berenger appears as Bar- 
ringer and Bellinger (p. 36). The simple Oliver is 

1 But the Scottish Neil is a Gaelic name often exchanged for the 
unrelated Nigel. 

2 There is also an Old Fr. Gulafre which will account for some 
of the Gullivers. 


fairly common, but it also became Oilier and Olver. 
But perhaps the largest surname family connected 
with the paladins is derived from the Breton Ives 
or Ivon, 1 whose name appears in that of two English 
towns. It is the same as Welsh Evan, and the Yvain 
of the Arthurian legends, and has given us Ives, 
Ivison, Ivatts, etc. The modern surname Ivory is 
usually an imitative form of Every, or Avery (p. 82). 
Gerard has a variety of forms in Ger- and Gar-, Jer- 
and Jar- (see p. 32). The others do not seem to have 
survived, except the redoubtable Archbishop Turpin, 
whose fame is probably less than that of his name- 
sake Dick. 

Besides the paladins, there are many heroes of 
Old French epic whose names were popular during 
the two centuries that followed the Conquest. Ogier 
le Danois, who also fought at Roncevaux, has given us 
Odgers ; Fierabras occasionally crops up as Firebrace ; 
Aimeri de Narbonne, from Almaric, 2 whence Ital. 
Amerigo, is in English Amery, Emery, Imray, etc. ; 
Renaud de Montauban is represented by Reynolds 
(p. 74) and Reynell. The famous Boon de Mayence 
may have been an ancestor of Lorna, and the equally 
famous Garin, or Warin, de Monglane has given us 
Waring, sometimes Warren, and the diminutives Gar- 
nett and Warnett. He shares Gerring with the paladin 
Gerin. Milo becomes Miles, with dim. Millett, and 
some of its derivatives have got mixed with the local 
Mill and the font-name Millicent. Amis and Amiles 
were the Orestes and Pylades of Old French epic and 

1 A number of Old French names had an accusative in -on or 
-ain. Thus we find Otes, Oton, Ives, Ivain, and feminines such as 
lie, Idain, all of which survive'as English surnames. 

2 A metathesis of Amalric, which is found in Anglo-Saxon. 


the former survives as Ames, A mies, and Amos. We have 
alsoBemerfrom Bernier, Ba^rawfromBertran, F arrant, 
with many variants, from Ferrand, i.e., Ferdinand, 
Terry and Terriss from Thierry, the French form of Ger. 
Dietrich (Theodoric), which, through Dutch, has given 
also Derrick. Gamier, from Ger. Werner, is our Garner 
and Warner, though these have other origins (pp. 154, 
185). Dru, from Drogo, has given Drew, with dim. 
Druitt (p. 53), and Druce, though the latter may also 
come from the town of Dreux. Walrond and Waldron 
are for Waleran, usually Galeran, and King Pippin 
had a retainer named Morant. Saint Leger appears as 
Ledger, Lediard, etc., and sometimes in the shortened 
Legg. Among the heroines we have Orbell from 
Orable, while Blancheflour may have suggested Lilly- 
white ; but the part played by women in the Chansons 
de Geste was insignificant. 

As this element in our nomenclature has hitherto 
received no attention, it may be well to add a few more 
examples of names which occur very frequently in the 
Chansons de Geste and which have undoubted repre- 
sentatives in modern English. Allard was one of the 
Four Sons of Aymon. The name is etymologically 
identical with Aylward (p. 73), but in the above form 
has reached us through French. Acard or Achard is 
represented by Haggard, Haggett, and Hatchard, 
Hatchett, though Haggard probably has another origin 
(p. 221). Harness is imitative for Harnais, Herneis. 
Clarabutt is for Clarembaut ; cf. Archbutt for Archem- 
baut, the Old French form of Archibald, Archbold. 
Durrani is Durand, still a very common French sur- 
name. Ely is Old Fr. Elie, i.e. Elias (p. 85), which 
had the dim. Elyot. 1 We also find Old Fr. Helye, 
1 For other names belonging to this group see p. 85 



whence our Healey. Enguerrand is telescoped to 
Ingram, though this may also come from the English 
form Ingelram. Fawkes is the Old Fr. Fauques, 
nominative (see p. 80, n. 1) of Faucon, i.e. falcon. 
Galpin is contracted from Galopin, a famous epic thief, 
but it may also come from the common noun galopin — 

" Galloppins, under cookes, or scullions in monasteries." 


In either case it means a " runner." Henfrey is 
from Heinfrei or Hainfroi, identical with Anglo-Sax. 
Haganfrith, and Manser from Manesier. Neame (p. 193) 
may sometimes represent Naime, the Nestor of Old 
French epic and the sage counsellor of Charlemagne. 
Richer, from Old Fr. Richier, has generally been 
absorbed by the cognate Richard. Aubrey and Avery 
are from Alberic. An unheroic name like Siggins may 
be connected with several heroes called Seguin. 

Nor are the heroes of antiquity altogether absent. 
Along with Old French national and Arthurian epics 
there were a number of romances based on the legends of 
Alexander, Csesar, and the tale of Troy. Alexander, or 
Saunder, was the favourite among this class of names, 
especially in Scotland. Cayzer was generally a nick- 
name, its later form Ccesar being due to Italian in- 
fluence, 1 and the same applies to Hannibal* when it is 
not an imitative form of the female name Annabel, 
also corrupted into Honeybatt. Both Dionisius and 
Dionisia were once common, and have survived as 
Dennis, Dennett, Denny, and from the shortened Dye 

1 Julius Cesar, physician to Queen Elizabeth, was a Venetian 

2 But the frequent occurrence of this name and its corruptions 
in Cornwall suggest that it may really have been introduced by 
Carthaginian sailors. 


we get Dyson. But this Dionisius was the patron 
saint of France. Apparent names of heathen gods 
and goddesses are almost always due to folk-etymology, 
e.g. Bacchus is for bake-house, and the ancestors of 
Mr. Wegg's friend Venus came from Venice. Virgil 
is of Italian origin and Homer is Old Fr. heaumier, 
helmet maker. 



" ' Now you see, brother Toby,' he would say, looking up, ' that 
Christian names are not such indifferent things ; — had Luther here 
been called by any other name but Martin, he would have been 
damn'd to all eternity' " (Tristram Shandy, ch. xxxv). 

The use of biblical names as font-names does not date 
from the Puritans, nor are surnames derived from 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob necessarily Jewish. The 
Old Testament names which were most popular among 
the medieval peasants from whom we nearly all spring 
were naturally those connected with the most pic- 
turesque episodes of sacred history. Taking as an 
example the father of all men, we find derived from 
the name Adam the following : Adams, Adamson, 
Adcock, Addis, Addison, Adds, Addy, Ade, Ades, Adey, 
Adie, Ady, Addey, Aday, Adee, Addyman, Adkin, 
Adkins, Adkinson, Adnett, 1 Adnitt, Adnet, Adnot, 
Atkin, Atkins, Atkinson, and the northern Aitken, etc 
This list, compiled from Bardsley's Dictionary of 
Surnames, is certainly not exhaustive. Probably 
Taddy is rimed on Addy as Taggy is on Aggy (Agnes). 
To put together all the derivatives of John or Thomas 
would be a task almost beyond the wit of man. Names 
in Abb-, App-, may come from either Abraham or Abel, 
and from Abbs we also have Nabbs. Cain was of 

1 Adenet (little Adam) le Roi was an Old French epic hero. 


course unpopular. The modern Cain, Cane, Kain re- 
presents the town of Caen or Norman quesne, quene, an 
oak. Moses appears in the French form Moyes (Moi'se) 
as early as 1273, and still earlier as Moss. Of the patri- 
archs the favourites were perhaps Jacob and Joseph, 
the name Jessop from the latter having been influenced 
by Ital. Giuseppe. Benjamin has sometimes given Ben- 
son and Bennett, but these are generally for Benedict 
(p. 46). The Judges are poorly represented, except 
Samson, a name which has obviously coalesced with 
the derivatives of Samuel. David had, of course, an 
immense vogue, especially in Wales (for some of its 
derivatives see p. 57), and Solomon was also popu- 
lar, the modern Salmon not always being a Jewish 
name. But almost the favourite Old Testament 
name was Elijah, Elias, which, usually through its 
Old French form Elie, whence Ely, is the parent of 
Ellis, Elliot, and many other names in El-, some of 
which, however, have to be shared with Ellen and 
Alice (p. 95). Job was also popular, and is easily 
recognized in Jobson, Jobling, etc., but less easily 
in Chubb (p. 32) and Jufip. The intermediate form 
was the obsolete Joppe. Among the prophetic writers 
Daniel was an easy winner, Dann, Dance (p. 10), 
Dannatt, Dancock, etc. Balaam is an imitative spelling 
of the local Baylham. 

In considering these Old Testament names it must 
be remembered that the people did not possess the 
Bible in the vernacular. The teaching of the parish 
priests made them familiar with selected episodes, from 
which they naturally took the names which appeared 
to contain the greatest element of holiness or of war- 
like renown. It is probable that the mystery plays 
were not without influence ; for the personal name 


was not always a fixed quantity, and just as John 
Carter, moving from Bingham to Nottingham, might 
become John Bingham, so Humfrey, after playing the 
part of Abel, might find his name changed accordingly. 
This would apply with still more force to names 
taken from the legends of saints and martyrs on 
which the miracle plays were based. We even find 
the names Saint, Martyr 1 and Postill, the regular 
aphetic form of apostle (p. 33), just as we find King 
and Pope. Camden, speaking of the freedom with 
which English names are formed, quotes a Dutchman, 
who — 

" When he heard of English men called God and Devil, said, 
that the English borrowed names from all things whatsoever, good 
or bad." 

The medieval name Godde may of course be for 
Good, Anglo-Sax. Goda, which is the first element in 
Goddard, Godfrey, etc., but Ledieu is common enough in 
France. The name seems to be obsolete, unless it is 
disguised as Goad. The occurrence in medieval rolls 
of Diabolus and le Diable shows that Deville need not 
always be for de Eyville. There was probably much 
competition for this important part, and the name 
would not be always felt as uncomplimentary. The 
surname Teufel is found in German. 

Coming to the New Testament, we find the four 
Evangelists strongly represented, especially the first 
and last. Matthew appears not only in an easily 
recognizable form, e.g. in Matheson, but also as 
Mayhew and Mayo, Old Fr. Mahieu. From the latter 
form we have the shortened May and Mee, whence 
Mayes, Makins, Meakin, Meeson, and sometimes 
Mason. Mark is one of the sources of March 
1 This may also be from Fr. le martre, the marten. 


(p. go), as Luke is of Luck, whence Lucock, Luckett, 
etc., though we more often find the learned form 
Lucas. Of John there is no need to speak. Of 
the apostles the great favourites, Simon, or Peter, 
John, and Bartholomew have already been men- 
tioned. Almost equally popular was Philip, whence 
Philp, Phipps, Phelps, and the dim. Philpot. Here 
also belongs Filkins. Andrew nourished naturally in 
Scotland, its commonest derivative being Anderson, 
while Dendy is for the rimed form Dandy. Paul has 
of course had a great influence and is responsible 
for Pawson or Porson, Pawling, Poison, Pollett, and most 
names in Pol-. 1 It is also, in the form Powell, assimi- 
lated to the Welsh Ap Howel. Paul is regularly 
spelt Poule by Chaucer, and St. Paul's Cathedral is 
often called Powles in Tudor documents. Paul's com- 
panions are poorly represented, for Barnby is local, 
while names in Sil- and Sel- come from shortened 
form of Cecil, Cecilia, and Silvester. Another great 
name from the Acts of the Apostles is that of 
the protomartyr Stephen, among the numerous 
derivatives of which we must include Stennett and 

Many non-biblical saints whose names occur very 
frequently have already been mentioned, e.g. Antony, 
Bernard, Gregory, Martin, Lawrence, Nicholas, etc. 
To these may be added Augustine, or Austin, Chris- 
topher, or Kit, with the dim. Christie and the imita- 
tive Chrystal, Clement, whence a large family of names 
in Clem-, Gervase or Jarvis, Jerome, sometimes repre- 
sented by Jerram, and Theodore, or Tidd (cf . Tibb from 
Theobald), who becomes in Welsh Tudor. Vincent has 
given Vince, Vincey and Vincett, and Baseley, Blazey 

1 This does not of course apply to Cornish names in Pol (p. 67). 


are from Basil and Blaise. The Anglo-Saxon saints 
are poorly represented, though probably most of them 
survive in a disguised form, e.g. Price is sometimes 
for Brice, Cuthbert has sometimes given Cubitt and 
Cobbett, and also Cutis. With an intrusive r 1 it has 
given Crewdson and Cruden. Bottle sometimes repre- 
sents Botolf, Neate is for Neot, and Chad survives as 
Cade and in many local names, e.g. Chadwick. The 
Cornish Tangye is from the Breton St. Tanneguy. The 
Archangel Michael has given one of our commonest 
names, Mitchell (p. 46). This is through French, but 
we have also the contracted Miall 8 — 

"At Michael's term had many a trial, 
Worse than the dragon and St. Michael." 

(Hudibras, III. ii. 51.) 

From Gabriel we have Gabb, Gabbett, etc. The common 
rustic pronunciation Gable has given Cable (p. 32) . 

Among female saints we find Agnes, pronounced 
Annis, the derivatives of which have become confused 
with those of Anne, or Nan, Catherine, whence Catt, 
Catlin, etc., Cecilia, Cicely, whence Sisley, and of course 
Mary and Margaret. For these see p. 93. St. Bride, 
or Bridget, survives in Kirkbride. 

A very interesting group of surnames are derived 
from font-names taken from the great feasts of the 
Church, date of birth or baptism, 5 etc. These are 
more often French or Greco-Latin than English, a fact 
to be explained by priestly influence. Thus Christmas 

1 The letter r, so slightly sounded in English, is very irresponsible. 
It disappears in Fanny (Frances) and Biddy (Bridget), but intrudes 
itself in the scruff, formerly scuft, of the neck, and probably in 
Scroggins (p. in). 

2 Cf. Vialls from Vitalis, a saint's name. 

3 Names of this class were no doubt also sometimes given to 


is much less common than Noel or Now ell, but we also 
find Midwinter (p. 23) and Yule. Easter has a local origin 
(from a place in Essex) and also represents Mid. Eng. 
estre, a word of very vague meaning for part of a build- 
ing, originally the exterior, from Lat. extra. It sur- 
vives in Fr. les Sires d'une maison. Hester, to which 
Bardsley gives the same origin, I should rather con- 
nect with Old Fr. hestre (hfare), a beech. However 
that may be, the Easter festival is represented in our 
surnames by Pascall, Cornish Pascoe, and Pask, Pash, 
Pace, Pack. Patch, formerly a nickname for a jester 
(p. 187), from his motley clothes, is also sometimes a 
variant of Pash. And the dim. Patchett has become 
confused with Padgett, from Padge, a rimed form of 
Madge. Pentecost has been corrupted into Pancoast 
and the local-looking Pankhurst. Michaelmas is now 
Middlemas (see p. 40), and Tiffany is an old name for 
Epiphany. It comes from Greco-Latin theophania 
(while Epiphany represents epiphania), which gave 
the French female name Tiphaine, whence our Tiffin. 
Lammas (loaf mass) is also found as a personal name, 
but there is a place called Lammas in Norfolk. We 
have compounds of day in Halliday or Holiday, Hay- 
day, for high day, Loveday, a day appointed for re- 
conciliations, and Hockaday, for a child born during 
Hocktide, which begins on the 15th day after Easter. 
It was also called Hobday, though it is hard to say 
why, hence the name Hobday, unless this is to be 
taken as the day, or servant (see p. 177),' in the service 
of Hob ; cf . Hobman. 

The days of the week are puzzling, the only one at 
all common being Munday, though most of the others 
are found in earlier nomenclature. We should rather 
expect special attention to be given to Sunday and 


Friday, and, in fact, Sonntag and Freytag are by far the 
most usual in German, while Dimanche and its per- 
versions are common in France, and Vendredi also 
occurs. This makes me suspect some other origin, 
probably local, for Munday, the more so as Fr. Di- 
manche, Demange, etc., is often for the personal name 
Dominicus, the etymology remaining the same as 
that of the day-name, the Lord's day. Parts of the 
day seem to survive in Noon, Eve, and Morrow, but 
Noon is local, Fr. Noyon (cf. Moon, earlier Mohun, 
from Moyon), Eve is the mother of mankind, and 
Morrow is for moor-row, i.e. the row of cottages on 
the moor. 

We find the same difficulty with the names of the 
months. Several of these are represented in French, 
but our March has four other origins, from March 
in Cambridgeshire, from march, a boundary, from 
marsh, or from Mark ; while May means in Mid. 
English a maiden (p. 195), and is also a dim. of 
Matthew (p. 86). The names of the seasons also 
present difficulty. Spring must often correspond to 
Fr. La Fontaine, but we find also Lent, 1 the old 
name for the season, and French has Printemps. 
Summer and Winter a are found very early as personal 
names, as are also Frost and Snow s ; but why always 
Summers or Somers with s and Winter without ? 
The latter has no doubt in many cases absorbed 
Vinter, vintner (see p. 41), but this will not account 
for the complete absence of genitive forms. And 
what has become of the other season ? We should 

1 The cognate Ger. Lenz is fairly common, hence the frequency 
of Lent in America. 

2 Winter was one of Hereward's most faithful comrades. 

* Two other common personal names were Flint and Steel. 


not expect to find the learned word autumn, but neither 
Fall nor Harvest, the true English equivalents, are at 
all common as surnames. 

I regard this group, days, months, seasons, as one of 
the least clearly accounted for in our nomenclature, 
and cannot help thinking that the more copious 
examples which we find in French and German are 
largely distorted forms due to the imitative instinct, 
or are susceptible of other explanations. This is 
certainly true in some cases, e.g. Fr. Mars is the 
regular French development of Medardus, 1 a saint 
to whom a well-known Parisian church is dedicated ; 
and the relationship of Janvier to Janus may be via 
the Late Lat. januarius, for janitor, a doorkeeper. 

1 This was the saint who, according to Ingoldsby, lived largely on 
oysters obtained by the Red Sea shore. At his church in Paris were 
performed the ' miracles ' of the Quietists in the seventeenth century. 
When the scenes that took place became a scandal, the government 
intervened, with the result that a wag adorned the church door 
with the following : 

"De par le Roi, defense a Dieu 
De faire miracle en ce lieu." 



" During the whole evening Mr. Jellyby sat in a corner with his 
head against the wall, as if he were subject to low spirits." 

(Bleak House, ch. iv.) 

Bardsley first drew attention to the very large 
number of surnames derived from an ancestress. His 
views have been subjected to much ignorant criticism 
by writers who, taking upon themselves the task of 
defending medieval virtue, have been unwilling to 
accept this terrible picture of the moral condition of 
England, etc. This anxiety is misplaced. There are 
many reasons, besides illegitimacy, for the adoption 
of the mother's name. In medieval times the children 
of a widow, especially posthumous children, would 
often assume the mother's name. Widdowson itself 
is sufficiently common, and is usually to be taken liter- 
ally, though, like Widdows, it is sometimes from Wido, 
i.e. Guy. Orphans would be adopted by female rela- 
tives, and a medieval Mrs. Joe Gargery would probably 
have impressed her own name rather than that of her 
husband on a medieval Pip. In a village which counted 
two Johns or Williams, and few villages did not, the 
children of one would assume, or rather would be given 
by the public voice, the mother's name. Finally, 
metronymics can be collected in hundreds by anyone 
who cares to work through a few early registers. 



Thus, in the Lancashire Inquests 1205-1307 occur 
plenty of people described as the son of Alice, Beatrice, 
Christiana, Eda, Eva, Mariot, Matilda, Quenilda, 1 
Sibilla, Ysolt. Even if illegitimacy were the only reason, 
that would not concern the philologist. 

Female names undergo the same course of treatment 
as male names. Mary gave the diminutives Marion 
and Mariot, whence Marriott. It was popularly 
shortened into Mai (cf. Hal for Harry), which had 
the diminutive Mally. From these we have Mawson 
and Malleson, the former also belonging to Maud. 
Mai and Mally became Mol and Molly, hence Molli- 
son. The rimed forms Pol, Polly are later, and names 
in Pol- usually belong to Paul (p. 87). The names 
Morris and Morrison occur too frequently to be alto- 
gether accounted for as from the font-name Maurice 
and the nickname Moorish, and are sometimes to be 
referred to Mary. Similarly Margaret, popularly Mar- 
get, became Mag, Meg, Mog, whence Meggitt, Moxon, 
etc. The rarity of Maggot is easily understood, but 
Poll Maggot was one of Jack Sheppard's accom- 
plices and Shakespeare used maggot-pie for magpie 
(Macbeth, iii, 4). Meg was rimed into Peg, whence 
Peggs, Mog into Pog, whence Pogson, and Madge into 
Padge, whence Padgett, when this is not for Patchett 
(p. 89), or for the Fr. Paget, usually explained as 
Littlepage. The royal name Matilda appears in the 
contracted Maud, Mould, Moule, Mott, Mahood (Old 
Fr. Maheut). Its middle syllable Till gave Tilly, 
Tillson and the dim. Tillet, Tillot, whence Tillotson. 
From Beatrice we have Bee, Beaton and Betts, and 
the northern Beattie, which are not connected with 
the great name Elizabeth. This is in medieval rolls 
1 An Anglo-Saxon name, Cynehild, whence Quennell. 


represented by its cognate Isabel, of which the 
shortened form was Bell (p. 8), or lb, the latter 
giving Ibbot, Ibbotson, and the rimed forms Tib-, 
Nib-, Bib-, Lib-. Here also belong Ebbs and Epps 
rather than to the Anglo-Sax. Ebba. 

Many names which would now sound somewhat 
ambitious were common among the medieval peasantry 
and are still found in the outlying parts of England, 
especially Devon and Cornwall. Among the characters 
in Mr .-Eden Phillpotts's Widecombe Fair are two sisters 
named Sibley and Petronell. From Sibilla, now Sybil, 
come most names in Sib-, though this was used also as 
a dim. of Sebastian (see also p. 75), while Petronilla has 
given Parnell, Purnell. As a female name it suffered 
the eclipse to which certain names are accidentally 
subject, and became equivalent to wench. Reference 
to a " prattling Parnel " are common in old writers, 
and the same fate overtook it in French — 

" Taisez-vous, pironnelle" (Tartufe, i. i). 

Mention has already been made of the survival of 
Guinevere (p. 79). From Cassandra we have Cash, 
Cass, Case, and Casson, from Idonia, Ide, Iddins, 
Iddison ; these no doubt confused with the derivatives 
of Ida and also of Eda and Edith, for the slayer of 
Jack Cade is indifferently called Iden and Edens. 
Pirn, as a female font-name, may be from Eu- 
phemia, and Siddons appears to belong to Sidonia, 
while the pretty name Avis or Avice has given Haweis. 
From Lettice, Lat. Icstitia, joy, we have Letts, Lettson, 
while the corresponding Joyce, Lat. jocosa, merry, has 
become confused with Fr. Josse (see p. 10). Anstey, 
Anstis, is from Anastasia, Dobell from Dulcibella, 
Precious from Preciosa, and Royce from Rohesia. 


It is often difficult to separate patronymics from 
metronymics. We have already seen (p. 60) that 
names in Ed- may be from Eda or from Edward, while 
names in Gil- must be shared between Julian, Juliana, 
Guillaume, Gilbert, and Giles. There are many other 
cases like Julian and Juliana, e.g. Custance is for 
Constance, but Cust may also represent the masculine 
Constant, while among the derivatives of Philip we 
must not forget the warlike Philippa. Or, to take pairs 
which are unrelated, Kitson may be from Christopher 
or from Catherine and Mattison from Matthew or 
from Martha, which became Matty and Patty, the 
derivatives of the latter coalescing with those of 
Patrick (p. 63). It is obvious that the derivatives of 
Alice would be confused with those of Allen, while 
names in El- may represent Elias or Eleanor. Also 
names in Al- and El- are sometimes themselves confused, 
e.g. the Anglo-Saxon ^Elfgod appears both as Allgood 
and Elgood. More Nelsons are derived from Neil, i.e. 
Nigel, than from Nell, the rimed dim. of Ellen. Emmett 
is a dim. of Emma, but Empson may be a shortened 
Emerson from Emery (p. 80). The rather common- 
place Tibbies stands for both Theobald and Isabella, 
and the same is true of all names in Tib- and some in 
Teb-. Lastly, the coalescence of John, the commonest 
English font-name, with Joan, the earlier form of Jane, 
was inevitable, while the French forms Jean and Jeanne 
would be undistinguishable in their derivatives. These 
names between them have given an immense number 
of surnames, the masculine or feminine interpretation 
of which must be left to the reader's imagination. 



" Now as men have always first given names unto places, so hath 
it afterwards grown usuall that men have taken their names from 
places" (Verstegan, Restitution of Decayed Intelligence). 

There is an idea cherished by some people that the 
possession of a surname which is that of a village or 
other locality points to ancestral ownership of that 
region. This is a delusion. In the case of quite small 
features of the landscape, e.g. Bridge, Hill, the name 
was given from place of residence. But in the case of 
counties, towns and villages, the name was usually 
acquired when the locality was left. Thus John 
Tiler leaving Acton, perhaps for Acton's good, would 
be known in his new surroundings as John Acton. 
A moment's reflection will show that this must be so. 
Scott is an English name, the aristocratic Scotts 
beyond the border representing a Norman family Escot, 
originally of Scottish origin. English, early spelt 
Inglis, is a Scottish name. The names Cornish and 
Cornwallis first became common in Devonshire, as 
Devenish did outside that county. French and Francis, 
Old Fr. le franceis, are English names, just as 
Langlois (lAnglais) is common in France. For the 
same reason Cutler is a rare name in Sheffield, where 
all are cutlers. By exception the name Curnow, which 
is Cornish for a Cornishman, is fairly common in its 


native county, but it was perhaps applied especially 
to those inhabitants who could only speak the old 
Cornish language. 

The local name may range in origin from a country 
to a plant (France, Darbishire, Lankester, Ashby, Street, 
House, Pound, Plumptre, Daisy), and, mathematically 
stated, the size of the locality will vary in direct pro- 
portion to the distance from which the immigrant has 
come. Terentius Afer was named from a continent. 
I cannot find a parallel in England, but names such 
as the nouns France, Ireland, Pettingell (Portugal), or 
the adjectives Dench, Mid. Eng. dense, Danish, Norman, 
Welsh, (Walsh, Wallis, etc.), Allman (Allemand), often 
perverted to Almond, were considered a sufficient mark 
of identification for men who came from foreign parts. 
But the untravelled inhabitant, if distinguished by a 
local name, would often receive it from some very 
minute feature of the landscape, e.g. Solomon Daisy 
may have been descended from a Robert Dayeseye, 
who lived in Hunts in 1273. It is not very easy 
to see how such very trifling surnames as this last 
came into existence, but its exiguity is surpassed 
in the case of a prominent French airman who 
bears the appropriately buoyant name of Brindejonc, 
perhaps from some ancestor who habitually chewed 
a straw. 

An immense number of our countrymen are simply 
named from the points of the compass, slightly dis- 
guised in N orris, Anglo- Fr. le noreis, 1 Sotheran, the 
southron, and Sterling, for Easterling, a name given 
to the Hanse merchants. Westray was formerly le 
westreis. A German was to our ancestors, as he still 
is to sailors, a Dutchman, whence our name Douch, 
1 The corresponding le surreis is now probably obsolete. 


Ger. deutsch, Old High Ger. tiutisc, which, through 
Old French tieis, has given Tyas. 1 

But not every local name is to be taken at its face 
value. Holland is usually from Holland in Lancashire 
and England is for Mid. Eng. ing-land, the land of Ing 
(cf. Ingulf, Ingold, etc.), a personal name which is the 
first element in many place-names, or from ing, a 
meadow by a stream. Holyland is not Palestine, but 
the holly-land. Hampshire is often for Hallamshire, 
a district in Yorkshire. Dane is a variant of Mid. Eng. 
dene, a valley, the inhabitant of Denmark having given 
us Bench (p. 97) and Dennis (le daneis). Visitors to 
Margate will remember the valley called the Dane, 
which stretches from the harbour to St. Peter's. 
Saxon is not racial, but a perversion of sexton (p. 167). 
Mr. Birdofredum Sawin, commenting on the methods 
employed in carrying out the great mission of the 
Anglo-Saxon race, remarks that — 

" Saxons would be handy 
To du the buryin' down here upon the Rio Grandy " 

(Lowell, Biglow Papers). 

The name Cockayne was perhaps first given derisively 
to a sybarite — 

" Paris est pour le riche un pays de Cocagne " (Boileau, Let. 6), 

but it may be an imitative form of Coken in Durham. 

Names such as Morris, i.e. Moorish, but also from 
the personal name Maurice, or Sarson, i.e. Saracen, 
but also for Sara-son, are rather nicknames, due to 
complexion or to an ancestor who was mine host of the 
Saracen's Head. Moor is sometimes of similar origin. 

1 Tyars, or Tyers, which Bardsley puts with this, is Fr. Thiers. 
Lat. tertius. 


Russ, like Rush, is one of the many forms of Fr. roux, 
red-complexioned (p. 21). Pole is for Pool, the native 
of Poland being called Pollock — 

" He smote the sledded Polack on the ice " {Hamlet, I. i). 

As a rule it will be found that while most of our 
counties have given family names, sometimes cor- 
rupted, e.g. Lankshear, Willsher, Cant, Chant, for Kent, 
with which we may compare Anguish for Angus, 
the larger towns are rather poorly represented, the 
movement having always been from country to town, 
and the smaller spot serving for more exact description. 
An exception is Bristow (Bristol), Mid. Eng. brig-stow, 
the place on the bridge, the great commercial city of 
the west from which so many medieval seamen hailed ; 
but the name is sometimes from Burstow (Surrey), and 
there were possibly smaller places called by so natural 
a name, just as the name Bradford, i.e. broad ford, 
may come from a great many other places than the 
Yorkshire wool town. Rossiter is generally for Ro- 
chester, but also for Wroxeter (Salop) ; Coggeshall 
is well disguised as Coxall, Barnstaple as Bastable, 
Maidstone as Mayston, Stockport as Stop ford. On the 
other hand, there is not a village of any antiquity but 
has, or once had, a representative among surnames. 

The provinces and towns of France and Flanders 
have given us many common surnames. From names 
of provinces we have Burgoyne and Burgin, Champain 
and Champneys (p. 20), Gascoyne and Gaskin, Mayne, 
Mansell, Old Fr. Mancel (manceau), an inhabitant of 
Maine or of its capital Le Mans, Brett and Britton, 
Fr. le Bret and le Breton, Pickard and Power, some- 
times from Old Fr. Pokier, a Picard, Peto, formerly 
Peitow, from Poitou, Poidevin and Puddifin, for 


Poitevin, Loving, Old Fr. le Lohereng, the man from 
Lorraine, assimilated to Fleming, Hanway, an old 
name for Hainault, Brabazon, le Brabancon, and 
Brebner, formerly le Brabaner, Angwin, for Angevin, 
Flinders, a perversion of Flanders, Barry, which is 
often for Berri, and others which can be identified 
by everybody. 

Among towns we have Allenson and Dallison, 
Alencon, Amyas, Amiens (cf. Father Damien), Ainger, 
Angers, Aris, Arras, Bevis, Beauvais, Bullen, Boulogne, 
Bloss, Blois, Callis and Challis, Calais, Challen, Chalon, 
Chaworth, Cahors, Druce, Dreux, Gaunt, Gand (Ghent), 
Luck, Luick (Liege), Loving, Louvain, Luckner, Du. 
Luykenaar, man from Liege, M alius, Malines (Mechlin), 
Raynes, Rennes and Rheims, Roan, Rouen, Sessions, 
Soissons, Stamp, Old Fr. Estampes (Etampes), Turney, 
Tournay, etc. The name de Verdun is common enough 
in old records for us to connect with it both the fas- 
cinating Dolly and the illustrious Harry. To the 
above may be added, among German towns, Cullen, 
Cologne, and Lubbock, Lubeck, and, from Italy, 
Janes, Genes (Genoa), Janaway or Janways, i.e. 
Genoese, and Lambard or Lombard. Familiar names 
of foreign towns were often anglicized. Thus we find 
Hamburg called Hamborough, Bruges Bridges, and 
Tours Towers. 

To the town of Angers we owe, besides Ainger, 
the forbidding names Anger and Danger. In many 
local names of foreign origin the preposition de has 
been incorporated, e.g. Dalmain, d'Allemagne, some- 
times corrupted into Dallman and D oilman, though 
these are also for Doleman, from the East Anglian 
dole, a boundary, Danvers, d'Anvers, Antwerp, Dever- 
eux, d'Evreux, Daubeney, Dabney, d'Aubigny, Disney, 


d'Isigny, etc. Doyle is a later form of Doyley, or 
Dolley, from d'Ouilli, and Darcy and Durfey were once 
d'Arcy and d'Urfe. Dew is sometimes for de Eu. 
Sir John de Grey, justice of Chester, had in 1246 two 
Alice in Wonderland clerks named Henry de Eu and 
William de Ho. This retention of the de is also 
common in names derived from spots which have not 
become recognized place-names ; see p. 140. A familiar 
example, which has been much disputed, is the Cam- 
bridgeshire name Death, which some of its possessors 
prefer to write D'Aeth or De Ath. Bardsley rejects 
this, without, I think, sufficient reason. It is true that 
it occurs as de Dethe in the Hundred Rolls, but this 
is not a serious argument, for we find also de Daubeney 
(see p. 100), the original de having already been 
absorbed at the time the Rolls were compiled. 

But to derive a name of obviously native origin from 
a place in France is a snobbish, if harmless, delusion. 
There are quite enough moor leys in England without 
explaining Morley by Morlaix. To connect the Mid. 
English nickname Longfellow with Longueville or 
the patronymic Hansom (p. 36) with Anceaumville 
betrays the same belief in phonetic epilepsy that 
inspires the derivation of Barber from the chapelry 
of Sainte-Barbe. The fact that there are at least 
three places in England called Carrington has not 
prevented one writer from seeking the origin of that 
name in the appropriate locality of Charenton. 



" In ford, in ham, in ley and tun 
The most of English surnames run " 


Verstegan's couplet, even if it be not strictly true, 
makes a very good text for a discourse on our local 
names. The ham, or home, and the ton, or town, 
originally an enclosure (cf. Ger. Zaun, hedge), were, 
at any rate in a great part of England, the regular 
nucleus of the village, which in some cases has become 
the great town and in others has decayed away and 
disappeared from the map. In an age when wool 
was our great export, flock keeping was naturally a 
most important calling, and the ley, or meadow land, 
would be quickly taken up and associated with human 
activity. When bridges were scarce, fords were im- 
portant, and it is easy to see how the inn, the smithy, 
the cartwright's booth, etc., would naturally plant 
themselves at such a spot and form the commence- 
ment of a hamlet 

Each of these four words exists by itself as a specific 
place-name and also as a surname. In fact Lee and 
Ford are among our commonest local surnames. In 
the same way the local origin of such names as Clay 
and Chalk may be specific as well as general. But I 


do not propose to deal here with the vast subject of 
our English village names, but only with the essential 
elements of which they are composed, elements which 
were often used for surnominal purposes long before 
the spot itself had developed into a village. 1 Thus 
the name Oakley must generally have been borne by a 
man who lived on meadow land which was surrounded 
or dotted with oak-trees. But I should be shy of 
explaining a given village called Oakley in the same 
way, because the student of place-names might be 
able to show from early records that the place was 
originally an ey, or island, and that the first syllable 
is the disguised name of a medieval churl. These four 
simple etymons themselves may also become perverted. 
Thus -ham is sometimes confused with holm (p. 117), 
-ley, as I have just suggested, may in some cases 
contain -ey, -ton occasionally interchanges with -don 
and -stone, and -ford with the French -fort (see p. 139). 
In this chapter will be found a summary of the 
various words applied by our ancestors to the natural 
features of the land they lived on. To avoid too 
lengthy a catalogue, I have classified them under the 
three headings (1) Hill and Dale, (2) Plain and Wood- 

1 A good general account of our village names will be found in 
the Appendix to Isaac Taylor's Names and their Histories. It is 
reprinted as chapter xi of the same author's Words and Places 
(Everyman Library), in which new setting it shines, philologically, 
like a good deed in a naughty world. There are a few excellent 
monographs on the village names of various counties, e.g. Bedford- 
shire, Berkshire, Cambridgeshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire 
(Skeat), Oxfordshire (Alexander), Lancashire (Wyld and Hirst), 
West Riding of Yorkshire (Moorman), Staffordshire, Warwickshire, 
Worcestershire (Duignan), to which, by the time these lines are 
printed, may be added Nottinghamshire by my colleague Dr. H. 
Mutschmann. But the greater part of what has been done on this 
subject by earlier writers is, says Dr. Bradley, worthless. 


land, (3) Water and Waterside, reserving for the next 
chapter the names due to man's interference with the 
scenery, e.g. roads, buildings, enclosures, etc. They 
are mostly Anglo-Saxon or Scandinavian, the Celtic 
name remaining as the appellation of the individual 
hill, stream, etc. (Helvellyn, Avon, etc.). The simple 
word has in almost all cases given a fairly common 
surname, but compounds are of course numerous, the 
first element being descriptive of the second, e.g. 
Bradley, broad lea, Radley and Ridley, red lea, Brockley, 
brook lea or badger lea (p. 225), Beverley, beaver lea, 
Cleverley, clover lea, Hawley, hedge lea, Rawnsley, 
raven's lea, and so ad infinitum. In the oldest records 
spot names are generally preceded by the preposition 
at, whence such names as Attewell, Atwood, but other 
prepositions occur, as in Bythesea, Underwood and the 
hybrid Surtees, on Tees. Cf. such French names as 
Doutrepont, from beyond the bridge. 

One curious phenomenon, of which I can offer no 
explanation, is that while many spot names occur 
indifferently with or without -s, e.g. Bridge, Bridges ; 
Brook, Brooks ; Piatt, Platts, in others we find a 
regular preference either for the singular or plural 1 
form. Compare the following couples : 

Field Meadows 

Lake Rivers 

Pool Mears (meres) 

Spring Wells 

Street Rhodes * (roads) 

Marsh Myers i (mires) 

1 In some cases no doubt a plural, in others a kind of genitive 
due to the influence of personal names, such as Wills, Perkins, etc. 

2 These are often also Jewish names, from the island of Rhodes 
and from Ger. Meyer. 


to which many more might be added. So we find 
regularly Nokes but Nash (p. 34), Beech but Willows. 
The general tendency is certainly towards the -s forms 
in the case of monosyllables, e.g. Banks, Foulds, Hayes, 
Stubbs, Thwaites, etc., but we naturally find the singular 
in compounds, e.g. Windebank (winding), Nettlefold, 
Roundhay, etc. 

There is also a further problem offered by names 
in -er. We know that a Waller was a mason or wall- 
builder, but was a Bridger really a Pontifex, 1 did he 
merely live near the bridge, or was he the same as a 
Bridgman, and what was the latter ? Did Sam Weller's 
ancestor sink wells, possess a well, or live near some- 
one else's well ? Probably all explanations may be . 
correct, for the suffix may have differed in meaning 
according to locality, but I fancy that in most cases 
proximity alone is implied. The same applies to many 
cases of names in -man, such as Hillman, Dickman 
(dyke), Parkman. 

Many of the words in the following paragraphs are 
obsolete or survive only in local usage. Some of them 
also vary considerably in meaning, according to the 
region in which they are found. I have included many 
which, in their simple form, seem too obvious to need 
explanation, because the compounds are not always 
equally clear. 

Hill and Dale 

We have a fair number of Celtic words connected 
with natural scenery, but they do not as a rule form 

1 An example of a Latinized name. Cf. Sutor, Faber, and the 
barbarous Sartorius, for sartor, a tailor. Pontifex may also be the 
latinized form of Pope or Bishop. It is not known why this title, 
bridge-builder, was given to high-priests. 


compounds, and as surnames are usually found in 
their simple form. Such are Cairn, a stony hill, Crag, 
Craig, and the related Carrick and Creagh, Glen or 
Glynn, and Lynn, a cascade. Two words, however, 
of Celtic origin, don, or down, a hill, and combe, a 
hollow in the hills, were adopted by the Anglo-Saxons 
and enter into many compounds. Thus we find 
Kingdon, whence the imitative Kingdom, Brandon, 
from the name Brand (p. 74), Ashdown, etc. The 
simple Donne or Dunne is sometimes the Anglo-Saxon 
name Dunna, whence Dunning, or a colour nickname, 
while Down and Downing may represent the Anglo- 
Sax. Duna and Duning (see p. 76). From combe, used 
especially in the west of England, we have Compton, 
and such compounds as Acomb, at combe, Addiscombe 
(Adam), Battiscombe (Bartholomew), etc. But Newcomb 
is for Newcome (p. 22). See also Slocomb (p. 207). 

The simple Hill and Dale are among our common 
surnames. Hill also appears as Hull and is easily 
disguised in compounds, e.g. Brummel for broom-hill, 
Tootell and Tuttle for Toothill, a name found in 
many localities and meaning a hill on which a watch 
was kept. It is connected with the verb to tout, 
originally to look out. We have Dale and its cognate 
Dell in Swindell (swine), Tindall (Tyne), Twaddell, 
Tweddell (Tweed), etc. — 

" Mr. H. T. Twaddle announced the change of his name to Tweed- 
dale in the Times, January 4, 1890 " (Bardsley). 

Other names for a hill are Fell (Scand.), found in the 
lake country, whence Grenfell ; and Hough or How 
(Scand.), as in Greenhow, Birchenough, and Goode- 
nough 1 (Godwin). This is often reduced to -0, as in 

1 Probably not a nickname. Its apparent opposite, Badenough, 
is for Badenoch in Scotland. 

HILLS 107 

Clitheroe, Shafto, and is easily confused with scough, 
a wood (Scand.), as in Briscoe (birch), Ay scough (ash). 
In the north we also find Law and Low, with such 
compounds as Bradlaugh, Whitelaw, and Harlow. To 
these must be added Barrow, often confused with the 
related borough (p. 121). Both belong to the Anglo- 
Sax, beorgan, to protect, cover. The name Leather- 
barrow means the hill, perhaps the burial mound, of 
Leather, Anglo-Sax. Hlothere, cognate with Lothair 
and Luther. 

A hill-top was Cope or Copp. • Chaucer uses it of the 
tip of the Miller's nose — 

"Upon the cope right of his nose he hade 
A werte, and thereon stood a toft of herys." 

(A. S54-) 

Another name for a hill-top appears in Peak, Pike, 
Peck, or Pick, but the many compounds in Pick-, e.g. 
Pickbourne, Pickford, Pickwick, etc., suggest a per- 
sonal name Pick of which we have the dim. in Pickett 
(cf. Fr. Picot) and the softened Piggot. We find Peak 
also as Peach and Petch, Anglo-French forms applied 
specifically to the Derbyshire Peak. A mere hillock or 
knoll has given the names Knapp, Knollys or Knowles, 
Knock, and Knott. But Knapp may also be for Mid. 
Eng. cnape, cognate with knave and with Low Ger. 
Knappe, squire — 

"Wer wagt es, Rittersmann Oder Knapp', 
Zu tauchen in diesen Schlund ? " 

(Schiller, Der Taucher, 1. I.) 

Redknap. the name of a Richmond boat-builder, is 
probably a nickname, like Redhead. A Knapper may 
have lived on a " knap," or may have been one of the 
Suffolk flint-knappers, who still prepare gun-flints for 


weapons to be retailed to the heathen. Knock and 
Knocker are both Kentish names, and there is a reef 
off Margate known as the Kentish Knock. We have 
the plural Knox (cf. Bax, p. 125). Knott is sometimes 
for Cnut, or Canute, which generally becomes Nutt. 
Both have got mixed with the nickname Nott. 

A green knoll was also called Toft (Scand.), whence 
Langtoft, and the name was used later for a homestead. 
From Cliff we have Clift, 1 with excrescent -t, and the 
cognates Cleeve and Clive. Compounds of Cliff are 
Radcliffe (red), Sutcliffe (south), Wyclif (white). The 
c- sometimes disappears in compounds, e.g. Cunliffe, 
earlier Cunde-clive, and Topliff ; but Ayliffe is for 
iElfgifu or .ZEthelgifu and Goodliffe from Godleof (cf. 
Ger. Gottlieb). The older form of Stone appears in 
Staines, Stanhope, Stanton, etc. Wheatstone is either 
for white stone or for the local Whetstone (Middlesex) . 
In Balderstone, Johnston, Edmondstone, Livingstone, 
the suffix is -ton, though the frequence of Johnston 
points to corruption from Johnson, just as in Not- 
tingham we have the converse case of Beeson from 
the local Beeston. In Hailstone the first element is 
Mid. Eng. hali, holy. Another Mid. English name 
for a stone appears in Hone, now used only of a 

A hollow or valley in the hillside was called in the 
north Clough, also spelt Clow, Cleugh (Clim o' the 
Cleugh), and Clew. The compound Fair clough is 
found corrupted into Faircloth. Another northern 
name for a glen was Hope, whence Allsop, Blenkinsop, 
Trollope, the first element in each being probably the 
name of the first settler, and Burnup, Hartopp (hart), 
Harrap (hare), Heslop (hazel). Gill (Scand.), a ravine, 

1 This may also be from Mid. Eng. clift, a cleft. 


has given Fothergill, Pickersgill, and Gaskell, from 
Gaisgill (Westmorland). These, like most of our 
names connected with mountain scenery, are natur- 
ally found almost exclusively in the north. Other 
surnames which belong more or less to the hill 
country are Hole, found also as Roll, Hoole, and 
Hoyle, but perhaps meaning merely a depression in 
the land, Ridge, and its northern form Rigg, with 
their compounds Doddridge, Langridge, Brownrigg, 
Hazelrigg, etc. But Penkridge, Pankridge are dis- 
tortions of Pancras or Pancratius. From Mid. Eng. 
raike, a path, a sheep-track (Scand.), we get Raikes 
and Greatorex, found earlier as Greatrakes, the name of 
a famous faith-healer of the seventeenth century. 

Woodland and Plain 

The compounds of Wood itself are very numerous, e.g. 
Braidwood, Harwood, Norwood, Sherrard and Sherratt 
(Sherwood) . But, in considering the frequency of the 
simple Wood, it must be remembered that we find 
people described as le wode, i.e. mad (cf. Ger. Wut, 
frenzy), and that mad and madman are found as 
medieval names — 

"Thou told'st me they were stolen unto this wood ; 
And here am I, and wode within this wood. 
Because I cannot meet my Hermia." 

(Midsummer Night's Dream, ii. i.) 

As a suffix -wood is sometimes a corruption of -ward, 
e.g. Haywood is occasionally for Hayward, and 
Allwood, Elwood are for Aylward, Anglo-Sax. .ZEthel- 
weard. Another name for a wood was Holt, cognate 
with Ger. Holz — 


" But right so as thise holtes and thise hay is, 
That han in winter dede ben and dreye, 
Revesten hem in grene whan that May is." 

(Troilus and Criseyde, iii. 351.) 

Hurst or Hirst means a wooded hill (cf. Ger. Horst), 
and Shaw was once almost as common a word as 
wood itself — 

" Wher rydestow under this grene-wode shawe ? " 

(D, 1386.) 

Hurst belongs especially to the south and west, though 
Hirst is very common in Yorkshire ; Shaw is found in 
the north and Holt in the east and south. We have 
compounds of Shaw in Bradshaw, Crashaw (crbw), 
Hearnshaw or Eamshaw (heron), Renshaw 1 (raven), etc., 
of Hurst in Buckhurst (beech), Brockhurst (badger), 
and of Holt in Oakshott. 

We have earlier forms of Grove in Greaves — 

' ' And with his stremes dryeth in the greats 
The silver dropes, hangynge on the leves" (A. 1495) — 

and Graves, the latter being thus no more funereal than 
Tombs, from Thomas (cf . Timbs from Timothy) . But 
Greaves and Graves may also be variants of the official 
Grieves (p. 181), or may come from Mid. Eng. grcefe, 
a trench, quarry. Compounds are Hargreave (hare), 
Redgrave, Stangrave, the two latter probably referring 
to an excavation. From Mid. Eng. strode, a small 
wood, appear to come Strode and Stroud, compound 
Bulstrode, while Struthers is the cognate strother, marsh, 
still in dialect use. Weald and wold, the cognates of 
Ger. Wold, were applied rather to wild country in 
general than to land covered with trees. They are 

1 It is obvious that this may also be for raven's haw (p. 124). 
Raven was a common personal name and is the first element in 
Ramsbottom (p. 114), Ramsden. 


probably connected with wild. Similarly the Late 
Lat. foresta, whence our forest, means only what is 
outside, Lat. foris, the town jurisdiction. From the 
Mid. Eng. wcsld we have the names Weld and Weale, 
the latter with the not uncommon loss of final -d. 
Scroggs (Scand.) and Scrubbs suggest their meaning 
of brushwood. Scroggins, from its form, is a patro- 
nymic, and probably represents Scoggins with intru- 
sive -r- (p. 88, n. i). This is from Scogin, a name borne 
by a poet who was contemporary with Chaucer and 
by a court-fool of the fifteenth century — 

" The same Sir John, the very same. I saw him break Skogan's 
head at the court gate, when he was a crack, not thus high.' - 

(2 Henry IV., iii. 2.) 

With Scrubb of cloudy ammonia fame we may 
compare Wormwood Scrubbs. Shrubb is the same 
word, and Shropshire is for Anglo-Sax. scrob-scire. 

The two northern names for a clearing in the wood 
were Royd and Thwaite (Scand.). The former is 
cognate with the second part of Baireut and Wernige- 
rode, and with the Rutli, the small plateau on which 
the Swiss patriots took their famous oath. It was so 
called — 

" Weil dort die Waldung ausgerodet ward." 

(Schiller, Wilhelm Tell.) 

Among its compounds are Ackroyd (oak), Grindrod 
(green), Murgatroyd (Margaret), Learoyd (lea), Ormerod, 
etc. We also find the name Rodd, which may belong 
here or to Rudd (p. 74), and both these names may also 
be for Rood, equivalent to Cross or Crouch (p. 17), as 
inHolyrood. Ridding is also related to Royd. Hacking 
may be a dim. of Hack (Haco), but we find also de le 
hacking, which suggests a forest clearing. Thwaite, 


from Anglo-Sax. pwitan, to cut, is found chiefly in 
Cumberland and the adjacent region in such com- 
pounds as Braithwaitc (broad), Hebbelthwaite, Postle- 
thwaite, Satterthwaite. The second of these is some- 
times corrupted into Ablewhite as Cowperthwaite is 
into Copperwheat, for " this suffix has ever been 
too big a mouthful in the south " (Bardsley). A 
glade or valley in the wood was called a Dean, 
Dene, Denne, cognate with den. The compounds are 
numerous, e.g. Borden (boar), Dibden (deep), Sowden, 
Sugden (sow), Hazeldean or Heseltine, etc. From the 
fact that swine were pastured in these glades the names 
Denman and Denyer have been explained as equivalent 
to swineherd. As a suffix -den is often confused with 
-don (p. 106). At the foot of Horsenden Hill, near 
Harrow, two boards announce Horseniow Farm and 
Horseniew Golf-links. An opening in the wood was 
also called Slade — 

"And when he came to Barnesdale, 
Great heavinesse there hee hadd ; 
He found two of his fellowes 
Were slaine both in a slade." 

(Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne.) 

The maps still show Pond Slade in Richmond Park. 
The compound Hertslet may be for hart-slade. 

Acre, a field, cognate with, but not derived from,Lat. 
ager, occurs in Goodacre, Hardacre, Linacre, Whittaker, 
etc., and Field itself gives numerous compounds, in- 
cluding Butterfield (bittern, p. 220), Schofield (school), 
Streatfeild (street), Whitfield. Pasture- land is repre- 
sented above all by Lea, for which see p. 28. It is 
cognate with Hohenlohe and Waterloo, while Mead 
and Medd are cognate with Zermatt (at the mead). 
Brinsmead thus means the same as Brinsley. 


Marshy land has given the names Can or Kerr (Scand.) 
and Marsh, originally an adjective, merisc, from mer, 
mere. Marris represents the cognate Fr. marais. The 
compounds Tidmarsh and Titchmarsh contain the 
Anglo-Saxon names Tidda and Ticca. Moor also 
originally had the meaning morass (e.g. in Sedgemoor), 
as Ger. Moor still has, so that Fenimore is pleonastic. 
The northern form is Muir, as in Muirhead. Moss 
was similarly used in the north ; cf . moss-trooper and 
Solway Moss, but the surname Moss is generally for 
Moses (p. 85). From slough we get the names Slow, 
Slowley, and Sloman (also a perversion of Solomon), 
with which we may compare Moorman and Mossman. 
This seems to be also the most usual meaning of 
Slack or Slagg, also used of a gap in the hills — 

" The first horse that he rode upon, 
For he was raven black, 
He bore him far, and very far, 
But failed in a slack." 

(Ballad of Lady Maisry.) 

Tye, or Tighe, means common land. Piatt is a 
piece, or plot, of level country — 

"Oft on a plat of rising ground 
I hear the far-off curfew sound" 

(Penseroso, 1. 73) ; 

and shape is expressed by Gore, a triangular piece of 
land (cf. Kensington Gore), of which the older form 
Gare, Geare, also survives. In Lowndes we have laund 
or lound — 

"And to the laund he rideth hym ful right, 
For thider was the hart wont have his flight" 

(A. 1691)— 

a piece of heath land, the origin of the modern word 
lawn. In Lund and Lunn it has become confused 


with the Old Norse lundr, a sacred grove. Laund itself 
is of French origin — 

" Lande, a land, or laund: a wild, unfilled, shrubbie, or bushie 
plaine " (Cotgrave). 

Its relation to land is uncertain, and it is not always 
possible to distinguish them in such compounds as 
Acland, Buckland, Cleveland, etc. The name Lander 
or Launder is unconnected with these (see p. 186). 
Flack is Mid. Eng. flagge, turf. Snape is a dialect 
word for winter pasture, and Wong means a meadow. 
A rather uncouth-looking set of names, which occur 
chiefly on the border of Cheshire and Lancashire, 
are compounded from bottom or botham, a wide 
shallow valley suited for agriculture. Hotspur, dis- 
satisfied with his fellow-conspirators' map-drawing, 
expresses his intention of damming the Trent so 

" It shall not wind with such a deep indent 
To rob me of so rich a bottom here." 

(i Henry IV. iii. I.) 

The first element is sometimes the name of the settler, 
e.g. Higginbottom (Richard), Rowbotham (Roland). 
The first element of Shufflebotham is, in the Lancashire 
Assize Rolls (1176-1285), spelt Schyppewalle- and 
Schyppewelle-, where schyppe is for sheep, still so 
pronounced in dialect. 

Water and Waterside 

Very few surnames are taken, in any language, from 
the names of rivers. This is quite natural, for just as 
the man who lived on a hill became known as Hill, 
Peake, etc., and not as Skiddaw or Wrekin, so the 


man who lived by" the waterside would be known as 
Bywater, Rivers, etc. No Londoner talks of going on 
the Thames. Another reason for the^ absence of such 
surnames is probably to be found in the fact that our 
river (and mountain) names are almost exclusively 
Celtic, and had no connotation for the English popu- 
lation. We have many apparent river names, but most 
of them are susceptible of another explanation. Dee 
may be for Day as Deakin is for Daykin, Derwent 
looks like Darwin (p. 73) or the local Darwen with 
excrescent -t (p. 41), Humber is Humbert, a French name 
corresponding to the Anglo-Sax. Hunbeorht, Medway 
is merely " mid- way," which is also the origin of the 
river name, and Trent is a place in Somerset. Severn 
I guess to be a perversion of Mid. Eng. le severe, 
which may mean what it appears to, though it is 
more probably the name of a sieve-maker, whence 
the name Seaver. This view as to river surnames is 
supported by the fact that we do not appear to have 
a single mountain surname, the apparent exception, 
Snowdon, being for Snowden (see den, p. 112). 

Among names for streams we have Beck, 1 cognate 
with Ger. Bach, Bourne,' or Burn, cognate with Ger. 
Brunnen, Brook, related to break, Crick, a creek, Fleet, 
a creek, cognate with Flood, and Syke, a trench or 
rill. In Beckett and Brockett the suffix is head (p. 126). 
Troutbeck, Birkbeck explain themselves. In Colbeck 
we have cold, Glazebrook is for glassy brook, Holbrook 
contains hollow, and Addenbrook means " at the 
brook" (p. 104). We find Brook latinized as Ton ens. 
Aborn is for atte bourne, and there are probably many 

1 The simple Beck is generally a German name of modern intro- 
duction (p. 149). 

2 Distinct from bourne, a boundary, Fr. borne. 


places called Blackburn and Otterburn. Firth, an 
estuary, cognate with fjord, often becomes Frith, but 
this surname usually comes from frith, a park or 
game preserve \p. 124). 

Another word for a creek, wich or wick (Scand.), 
cannot be distinguished from wick, a settlement. 
Pond, a doublet of Pound (p. 135), means a piece 
of water enclosed by a dam, while natural sheets 
of water are Lake, or Lack, not limited originally 
to a large expanse, Mere, whence Mears and the 
compound Cranmer (crane) , and Pool, also Pull and 
Pole. We have compounds of the latter in Poulton 
(p. 4), Pooley (ey, p. 117), Claypole, and Glasspool. 
In Kent a small pond is called Sole, whence Nether- 
sole. The bank of a river or lake was called Over, 
cognate with Ger. Ufer, whence Overend, Overall 
(hall), Overbury, Overland. The surname Shore, for 
atte shore, may refer to the sea-shore, but the word 
sewer was once regularly so pronounced and the 
name was applied to large drains in the fen country 
(cf. Gott, p. 129). Beach is a word of late appear- 
ance and doubtful origin, and as a surname is usually 
identical with Beech. 

Spits of land by the waterside were called Hook 
(cf. Hook of Holland and Sandy Hook) and Hoe or 
Hoo, as in Plymouth Hoe, or the Hundred of Hoo, 
between the Thames and the Medway. From Hook 
comes Hooker, where it does not mean a maker of hooks, 
while Homan and Hooman sometimes belong to the 
second. Alluvial land by a stream was called halgh, 
haugh, whence sometimes Hawes. Its dative case 
gives Hale and Heal. These often become -hall in 
place-names. Compounds are Greenhalgh, Greenall, 
and Feather stonehaugh, perhaps our longest surname. 


Ing, a low-lying meadow, Mid. Eng. eng, survives 
in Greening (also a patronymic, p. 71), and probably 
in England (p. 98). But Inge and Ings, the latter 
the name of one of the Cato Street conspirators, also 
represent an Anglo-Saxon personal name. Cf. Ingall 
and Ingle, from Ingold, or Ingwulf ; cf. Ingoldsby. 

Ey, 1 an island, survives as the last element of many 
names, and is not always to be distinguished from hey 
(hay, p. 124) and ley. Bill Nye's ancestor lived atten ey 
(p. 34). Dowdney or Dudeney, from the Anglo-Saxon 
name Duda, has probably swallowed up the very com- 
mon French name Dieudonne, corresponding to Lat. 
Deodatus. In the north a river island was commonly 
called Holm (Scand.), also pronounced Home, Hulme, 
and Hume, in compounds easily confused with -ham, 
e.g. Durham was once Dun-holmr, hill island. 
Hence sometimes Holman, Holmer, and Homer. The 
very common Holmes is probably in most cases 
a tree-name (p. 118). In Chisholm the first element 
means pebble ; cf. Chesil Beach. The names Bent, 
whence Broadbent, and Crook probably also belong 
sometimes to the river, but may have arisen from a 
turn in a road or valley. But Bent was also applied 
to a hill covered with bents, or rushes, and Crook 
is generally a nickname (p. 211). Lastly, the crossing 
of the unbridged stream has given us Ford or Forth, 
whence Stratford or Strafford (street), Stanford or 
Stamford (stone), etc. The alternative name was 
Wade, from which we have the compound Grimwade. 
The cognate wath (Scand.) has been swallowed up by 
with (Scand.), a wood, whence the name Wythe. 
Askwith, or Asquith, may thus be equivalent to Ashford 
or Ashwood. Beckwith probably means Beckford. 
1 Isle of Sheppey, Mersea Island, etc., are pleonasms. 


Tree Names 

In conclusion a few words must be said about tree 
names, so common in their simple form and in topo- 
graphical compounds. Here, as in the case of most 
of the etymons already mentioned in this chapter, 
the origin of the surname may be specific as well as 
general, i.e. the name Ash may come from Ash in 
Kent rather than from any particular tree, the etymo- 
logy remaining the same. Many of our surnames have 
preserved the older forms of tree names, e.g. the lime 
was once the line, hence Lines, Lynes, and earlier still 
the Lind, as in the compounds Lyndhurst, Lindley, etc. 
The older form of Oak appears in Acland, Acton, and 
variants in Ogden and Braddock, broad oak. We 
have ash in Aston, Ascham. The holly was once the 
hollin, whence Rollins, Hollis, Rollings ; cf. Rollings- 
head, Holinshed. But hollin became colloquially holm, 
whence generally Holmes. Homewood is for holm- 
wood. The holm oak, ilex, is so called from its 
holly-like leaves. For Birch we also find Birk, com- 
mon in compounds. Beech often appears as Buck; 
cf. buck-wheat, so called because the grains are of 
the shape of beech-mast. In Poppleton, Popplewell 
we have the dialect popple, a poplar. Yeo ' sometimes 
represents yew, spelt yowe by Palsgrave. 

In Sallows we have a provincial name for the willow, 
cognate with Fr. saule and Lat. salix. Rowntree is the 
rowan, or mountain ash, and Bawtry or Bawtree is a 
northern name for the elder. The older forms of Alder 
and Elder, in both of which the -d- is intrusive (p. 34), 

1 The yeo of yeoman, which is conjectured to have meant district, 
cognate with Ger. Gau in Breisgau, Rheingau, etc., is not found by 

TREES 119 

appear in Allerton and Ellershaw. The Hazel is found 
also as the Halse, whence Halsey, the suffix being either 
-ey (p. 116) or -hey, -hay (p. 124). Maple is sometimes 
Mapple and sycamore is corrupted into Sicklemore. 

Tree-names are common in all languages. Beerbohm 
Tree is pleonastic, from Ger. Bierbaum, for Bimbaum, 
pear-tree. A few years ago a prominent Belgian 
statesman bore the name Vandepoerenboom, rather 
terrifying till decomposed into "van den poerenboom." 
Its Mid. English equivalent appears in Pirie, origin- 
ally a collection of pear-trees, but used by Chaucer 
for the single tree — 

" And thus I lete hym sitte upon the pyrie." 

(E. 2217.) 

From trees we may descend gradually, via Thome, 
Bush, Furze, Gorst (p. 10), Ling, etc., until we come 
finally to Grace, which in some cases represents grass, 
for we find William atte grase in 1327, while the name 
Poorgrass, in Mr. Hardy's Far from the Madding Crowd, 
seems to be certified by the famous French names 
Malherbe and Malesherbes. But Savory is the French 
personal name Savary. 

The following list of trees is given by Chaucer in the 
Knight's tale — 

" The names that the trees highte, — 
As 00k, firre, birch, aspe, alder, holm, popeler, 
Wylugh, elm, plane, assh, box, chasteyn, lynde, laurer, 
Mapul, thorn, bech, hasel, ew, whippeltre." 

(A. 2920.) 

They are all represented in modern directories. 



" One fels downe firs, another of the same 
With crossed poles a little lodge doth frame : 
Another mounds it with dry wall about, 
And leaves a breach for passage in and out : 
With turfe and furze some others yet more grose 
Their homely sties in stead of walls inclose : 
Some, like the swallow, mud and hay doe mixe 
And that about their silly cotes they fixe : 

Some heale (thatch) their roofes with iearn, or reeds, or rushes, 
And some with hides, with oase, with boughs, and bushes." 

(Sylvester, The Devine Weehes.) 

In almost every case where man has interfered with 
nature the resulting local name is naturally of Anglo- 
Saxon or, in some parts of England, of Scandinavian 
origin. The Roman and French elements in our topo- 
graphical names are scanty in number, though the 
former are of frequent occurrence. The chief Latin 
contributions are -Chester, -tester, -caster, Lat. castrum, 
a fort, or plural castra, a camp ; -street, Lat. via strata, 
a levelled way ; -minster, Lat. monasterium; and -church 
or -kirk, Greco-Lat. kuriakon, belonging to the Lord. 
Eccles, Greco-Lat. ecclesia, probably goes back to Celtic 
Christianity. Street was the high-road, hence Greenstreet. 
Minster is curiously corrupted in Buckmaster for Buck- 
minster and Kittermaster for Kidderminster, while in its 
simple form it appears as Minister (p. 35). We have a 
few French place-names, e.g. Beamish (p. 139), Beau- 


mont, Richmond, Richemont, and Malpas (Cheshire), 
the evil pass, with which we may compare Maltravers. 
We have the apparent opposite in Bompas, Bumpus, 
Fr. bon pas, but this was a nickname. Of late there 
has been a tendency to introduce the French ville, 
e.g. Bournville, near Birmingham. That part of Mar- 
gate which ought to be called Northdown is known as 
Cliftonville, and the inhabitants of the opposite end 
of the town, dissatisfied with such good names as 
Westbrook and Rancorn, hanker after Westonville. 
But these philological atrocities are fortunately too 
late to be perpetuated as surnames. 

I have divided the names in this chapter into those 
that are connected with (1) Settlements and Enclosures, 
(2) Highways and Byways, (3) Watercourses, (4) 
Buildings, (5) Shop Signs. And here, as before, names 
which neither in their simple nor compound form 
present any difficulty are omitted. 

Settlements and Enclosures 

The words which occur most commonly in the 
names of the modern towns which have sprung 
from early settlements are borough or bury, 1 by, 
ham, stoke, stow, thorp, tun or ton, wick, and worth. 
These names are all of native origin, except by, 
which indicates a Danish settlement, and wick, which 
is supposed to be a very early loan from Lat. 
vicus, cognate with Greek o'Uos, house. Nearly all 
of them are common, in their simple form, both as 
specific place-names and as surnames. Borough, cog- 
nate with Ger. Burg, castle, and related to Barrow 
(p. 107), has many variants, Bury, Brough, Borrow, 
Berry, whence Berryman, and Burgh, the last of which 
1 Originally the dative of borough. 


has become Burke in Ireland, In Atterbury the pre- 
position and article have both remained, while in 
Thornber the suffix is almost unrecognizable. By, 
related to byre and to the preposition by, is especially 
common in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. It is some- 
times spelt bee, e.g. Ashbee for Ashby. The simple 
Bye is not uncommon. Ham is cognate with home. 
In compounds it is sometimes reduced to -um, e.g. 
Barnum, Holtum, Wamum. Allum represents the 
usual Midland pronunciation of Hallam. Cullum, 
generally for Culham, may also represent the mis- 
sionary Saint Colomb. In Newnham the adjective is 
dative, as in Ger. Neuenheim, at the new home. In 
Bonham, Frankham, and Pridham the suffix -ham has 
been substituted for the French homme, bonhomme, 
franc homme, prudhomme, while J erningham is a per- 
version of the personal name Jernegan or Gernegan, 
as Garnham is of Gernon, Old French for Beard (see 
p. 199). Stead is cognate with Ger. Stadt, place, town, 
and with staith, as in Bicker steth (p. 40). Armstead 
means the dwelling of the hermit, Bensted the stead 
of Benna (p. 75) or Bennet. 

Stoke is originally distinct from Stock, a stump, 
with which it has become fused in the compounds 
Bostock, Brigstocke. Stow appears in the compound 
Bristol (p. 99) and in Plaistow, play-ground (cf. Play- 
sted). Thorp, cognate with Ger. Dorf, village, is 
especially common in the eastern counties — 

" By thirty bills I hurry down 
Or slip between the ridges, 
By twenty thorps, a. little town, 
And half a hundred bridges." 

(Tennyson, The Brook, 1. 5.) 

It has also given Thrupp and probably Thripp, whence 
Calthrop, Winthrop, Westrupp, etc. Ton, later Town, 


gave also the northern Toon, still used in Scotland with 
something of its original sense (see p. 102). Boston 
is Botolf's town, Gunston Gunn's town. So also Tarle- 
ton (Thurweald), Monkton (monk), Preston (priest). 
Barton meant originally a barley-field, and is still used 
in the west of England for a paddock. Wick appears 
also as Wych, Weech, Its compounds cannot be 
separated from those of wick, a creek (p. 116). Bromage 
is for Bromwich, Greenidge for Greenwich, Prestage for 
Prestwich. Killick probably represents Kilnwick and 
Physick is imitative for Fishwick. 

Worth was perhaps originally applied to land by a 
river or to a holm (p. 117) ; cf. Ger. Donauwert, 
Nonnenwert, etc. Harmsworth is for Harmondsworth ; 
cf. Ebbsworth (Ebba), Shuttleworth (Sceotweald), Wads- 
worth (Wada). Sometimes we find a lengthened form, 
e.g. Allworthy, from aid, old (cf. Aldworth), Langworthy . 
Brownsword is folk-etymology for Brownsworth, and 
Record for Rickworth. Littleworth may belong to this 
class, but it may also be a disparaging nickname. 
This would make it equivalent to the imitative 
Littleproud, formerly Littleprow, from Old Fr. and 
Mid. Eng. prou, worth, value. To this group of 
words may be added two more, which signify a mart, 
viz. Cheap or Chipp (cf. Chepstow, Chipping Barnet, 
etc.) and Staple, whence Huxtable, Stapleton, etc. 
Liberty, that part of a city which, though outside 
the walls, shares in the city privileges, and Parish 
also occur as surnames, but the latter is usually for 

Many other words connected with the delimitation 
of property occur commonly in surnames. Croft or 
Craft, a small field, is common in compounds such as 
Beecroft or Bear croft (barley), Haycraft (see hay, p. 124), 


Oscroft (ox) , Meadowcroft, 1 Ry croft. Fold occurs usually 
as Foulds, but we have compounds such as Nettle/old, 
Penfold or Pinfold (p. 135). Sty, not originally limited 
to pigs, has given Hardisty, the sty of Heardwulf. 
Frith, a park or game preserve, is probably more 
often the origin of a surname than the other frith 
(p. 116). It is cognate with Ger. Friedhoi, cemetery. 
Chase is still used of a park and Game once meant 
rabbit-warren. Warren is Fr. garenne. Garth, the 
Scandinavian doublet of Yard, and cognate with 
Garden, has given the compounds Garside, Garfield, 
Hogarth (from a place in Westmorland), and Apple- 
garth, of which Applegate is a corruption. We have 
a compound of yard in Wynyard, Anglo-Sax. win, 
vine. We have also the name Close and its deriva- 
tive Clowser. Gate, a barrier or opening, Anglo-Sax. 
geat, is distinct from the Scandinavian gate, a street 
(p. 128), though of course confused with it in surnames. 
From the northern form we have Yates, Yeats, and 
Yeatman, and the compounds Byatt, by gate, Hyatt, 
high gate. Agate is for atte gate, and Lidgate, whence 
Lidgett, means a swing gate, shutting like a lid. -Flad- 
gate is for flood-gate. Here also belongs Barr. Hatch, 
the gate at the entrance to a chase, survives in Colney 
Hatch. The apparent dim. Hatchett is for Hatchard 
(p. 81) ; cf. Everett for Everard (p. 17). Hay, also 
Haig, Haigh, Haw, Hey, is cognate with Hedge. Like 
most monosyllabic local surnames, it is commonly 
found in the plural, Hayes, Hawes. The bird nick- 
name Hedgecock exists also as Haycock. The curious- 

1 I remember reading in some story of a socially ambitious lady 
who adopted this commonplace name instead of Gubbins. The 
latter name came over, as Gobin, with the Conqueror, and goes 
back to Old Ger. Godberaht, whence Old Fr. Godibert. 


looking patronymics Orchardson and Townson are of 
course corrupt. The latter is for Tomlinson and the 
former perhaps from Achard (p. 81). 

Several places and families in England are named 
Hide or Hyde, which meant a certain measure of land. 
The popular connection between this word and hide, a 
skin, as in the story of the first Jutish settlement, is 
a fable. It is connected with an Anglo-Saxon word 
meaning household, which appears also in Huish, Anglo - 
Sax. hi-wisc. Dike, or Dyke, and Mo'at, also Mott, both 
have, or had, a double meaning. We still use dike, 
which belongs to dig and ditch, both of a trench and a 
mound, and the latter was the earlier meaning of Fr. 
motte, now a clod. In Anglo-French we find moat used 
of a mound fortress in a marsh. Now it is applied to 
the surrounding water. From dike come the names 
Dicker, Dickman, Grimsdick, etc. Sometimes the name 
Dykes may imply residence near some historic earth- 
work, such as Offa's Dyke, just as Wall, sometimes 
pronounced Waugh in the north, may show connection 
with the Roman wall. With these may be mentioned 
the French name Fosse, whence the apparently pleo- 
nastic Fosdyke and the name of Verdant Green's 
friend, Mr. Four-in-hand Fosbrooke. Delves is from 
Mid. Eng. delf, ditch. Jury is for Jewry, the quarter 
allotted to the Jews, but Jewsbury is no doubt for 
Dewsbury ; cf. Jewhurst for Dewhurst. 

Here may be mentioned a few local surnames 
which are hard to classify. We have the apparently 
anatomical Back, Foot, Head, and, in compounds, -side. 
Back seems to have been used of the region behind a 
building or dwelling, as it still is at Cambridge. Its 
plural has given Bax. But it was also a personal name 
(p. 222), sometimes spelt Batch, We should expect 


Foot to mean the base of a hill, but it always occurs 
in early rolls as a personal name. It has also given 
Foat and the dim. Footett. It appears to be cognate 
with Ger. Alfons. Lightfoot, Barfoot are of course 
nicknames. The simple Head, found as Mid. Eng. 
del heved, is perhaps generally from a shop or tavern 
sign. Fr. Tete, one of the origins of Tait, Tate, and 
Ger. Haupt and Kopf also occur as surnames. As a 
local suffix -head appears to mean top-end and is 
generally shortened to -ett, e.g. Birkett 1 (cf . Birken- 
head), Brockett (brook), Bromet and By omhead (broom), 
Hazlitt (hazel). Fawcett is probably an accidental 
spelling of Fossett, from fosse, or of Forcett from force, 
a waterfall (Scand.). Broadhead may be a nickname, 
like Fr. Grossetete and Ger. Breitkopf. The face-value 
of Evershed is boar's head. Morshead may be the 
nickname of mine host of the Saracen's Head or 
may mean the end of the moor. So the names Aked 
(oak), Blackett, Woodhead may be explained anatomi- 
cally or geographically according to the choice of the 
bearer. Perrett, usually a dim. of Peter, may some- 
times represent the rather effective old nickname 
" pear-head." Side is local in the uncomfortable 
sounding Akenside (oak), Fearenside (fern), but Heavi- 
side appears to be a nickname. Handy side may mean 
" gracious manner," from Mid. Eng. side, cognate with 
Ger. Sitte, custom. See Hendy (p. 211). The simple 
end survives as Ind or Nind (p. 34) and in Overend 
(p. 116), Townsend. Edge, earlier Egg (p. 31), has given 
Titheredge, but the frequency of place-names begin- 
ning with Edge, e.g. Edgeley, Edgington, Edgworth, 
etc., suggests that it was also a personal name. 

1 No doubt sometimes, like Burchett, Buckett, for the personal 
name Burchard, Anglo-Sax. Burgheard. 


Lynch, a boundary, is cognate with go\i-links. The 
following sounds modern, but refers to people sitting 
in a hollow among the sand-ridges — 

" And are ye in the wont of drawing up wi' a! the gangrel bodies 
that ye find cowering in a sa.nd-bunker upon the links ? " 

(Redgauntlet, ch. xi.) 

Pitt is found in the compound Bulpitt, no doubt the 
place where the town bull was kept. It is also the 
origin of the Kentish names Pett and Pettman. Arch 
refers generally to a bridge. Lastly, there are three 
words for a corner, viz. Hearne, Heme, Hume, Wyke, 
the same word as Wick, a creek (p. 116), and Wray 
(Scand.). The franklin tell us that "yonge clerkes " 
desirous of knowledge — 

" Seken in every halke and every heme 
Particular sciences for to lerne " (F, 11 19). 

Wray has become confused with Ray (p. 29). Its 
compound thack-wray, the corner where the thatch was 
stored, has given Thackeray. 

Highways and Byways 

We have already noticed the curious fact that, as 
surnames, we always find the singular Street and the 
plural Roades. The meaning of Street has changed 
considerably since the days when Icknield Street and 
Watling Street were great national roads. It is now 
used exclusively of town thoroughfares, and has 
become such a mere suffix that, while we speak of the 
Oxford Road, we try to suppress the second word in 
Oxford Street. To street belong our place-names and 
surnames in Strat-, Stret-, etc., e.g. Stratton, Stretton, 


Stredwick. The usual spelling Rhodes, for roads, is 
also curious. In some cases the name is borne by 
descendants of Jewish immigrants who took their 
name from the island of Rhodes, while in others it 
is identical with Royds (p. in), the earlier spelling of 
which was also rodes. Way has a number of com- 
pounds with intrusive -a-, e.g. Chattaway, Dallaway 
(dale), Greenaway, Hathaway (heath), Westaway. But 
Hanway is the name of a country (see p. 'ioo), and 
Otway, Ottoway, is Old Fr. Otouet, a dim. of Odo. 
Shipway is for sheep-way. In the north of England 
the streets in a town are often called gates (Scand.) . 
It is impossible to distinguish the compounds of this 
gate from those of the native gate, a barrier (p. 124), 
e.g. Norgate may mean North Street or North Gate. 
Alley and Court both exist as surnames, but the latter 
is from court in the sense of mansion, country house. 
The curious spelling Caught may be seen over a shop 
in Chiswick. Rowe has various origins (p. 8), but 
often means a row of houses, and we find the com- 
pound Townroe. Cosway, Cossey, is from causeway, 
Fr. chaussee ; and Twitchen, Twitchell represent dialect 
words used of a narrow passage and connected with 
the Mid. English verb twiselen, to fork, or divide ; 
Twiss must be of similar origin, for we find Robert 
del twysse in 1367. Cf . Birtwistle and Entwistle. With 
the above may be classed the west-country Shute, a 
narrow street ; Vennell, also found as Fennell, a north- 
country word for alley, Fr. venelle, dim. of Lat. vena, 
vein ; Wynd, a court, also a north-country word, 
probably from the verb wind, to twist, and the cognate 
Went, a passage — 

" Thorugh a goter, by a prive wente." 

KFroilus and Criseyde, iii. 788.) 



Names derived from artificial watercourses are 
Channell, now replaced as a common noun by the 
learned form canal, Condy or Cundy, a well-known 
name in Yorkshire, for the earlier Cunditt, conduit, 
Gott, cognate with gut, used in Yorkshire for the 
channel from a mill-dam and in Lincolnshire for a 
water-drain on the coast, Lade, Leete, connected with 
the verb to lead, and sometimes Shore (p. 116), which 
was my grandfather's pronunciation of sewer. Gott 
may also be a personal name, corresponding to Fr. 
Got, which is sometimes aphetic for Margot. From 
weir, lit. a protection, precaution, cognate with beware 
and Ger. wehren, to protect, we have not only Weir, 
but also Ware, Warr, Wear, and the more pretentious 
Delawarr. The latter name passed from an Earl 
Delawarr to a region in North America, and thus 
to Fenimore Cooper's noble red men. Lock is more 
often a land name, to be classed with Hatch (p. 124), 
but was also used of a water-gate. Key was once the 
usual spelling of quay. We have the two names com- 
bined in the curious name Keylock . Port seldom belongs 
here, as the Mid. English is almost always de la forte, 
i.e. Gates. From well we have a very large number of 
compounds, e.g. Cauldwell (cold), Hattiwell, the variants 
of which, Holliwell, Hollowell, probably all represent 
Mid. Eng. halt, holy. Here belongs also Winch, from 
the device used for drawing water from deep wells. 


The greater number of the words to be dealt with 
under this heading enter into the composition of 
specific place-names. A considerable number of sur- 


names are derived from the names of religious build- 
ings, usually from proximity rather than actual 
habitation. Such names are naturally of Greco-Latin 
origin, and were either introduced directly into Anglo- 
Saxon by the missionaries, or were adopted later in a 
French form after the Conquest. It has already been 
noted (p. 5) that Abbey is not generally what it seems, 
but in some cases it is local, from Fr. abbaye, of which 
the Provencal form Abadie was introduced by the 
Huguenots. We find much earlier A bdy, taken straight 
from the Greco-Lat. abbatia. The famous name 
Chantrey is for chantry, Armitage was once the 
regular pronunciation of Hermitage, and Chappell 
a common spelling of Chapel — 

" Also if you finde not the word you seeke for presently after 
one sort of spelling, condemne me not forthwith, but consider how 
it is used to be spelled, whether with double or single letters, as 
Chappell, or Chapell" (Holyoak, Latin Diet., 1612). 

We have also the Norman form Capel, but this may 
be a nickname from Mid. Eng. capel, nag — 

" Why nadstow (hast thou not) pit the caput in the lathe (barn) ? " 

(A, 4088.) 

A Galilee was a chapel or porch devoted to special 
purposes — 

" Those they pursued had taken refuge in the galilee of the 
church " (Fair Maid of Perth, ch. ix.). 

The tomb of the Venerable Bede is in the Galilee of 
Durham Cathedral. I had a schoolfellow with this 
uncommon name, now generally perverted to Galley. 
In a play now running (Feb. 1913) in London, there 
is a character named Sanctuary, a name found also in 
Crockford and the London Directory. I have only 


once come across the contracted form Sentry l (Daily 
Telegraph, Dec. 26, 1912), and then under circumstances 
which might .make quotation actionable. Purvis is 
Mid. Eng. parvis, a porch, Greco-Lat. paradisus. It 
may be the same as Provis, the name selected by Mr. 
Magwitch on his return from the Antipodes (Great 
Expectations, ch. xl.), but this may be for Provost. 
Porch and Portch both occur as surnames, but Porcher 
is Fr. porcher, a swineherd, and Portal is a Huguenot 
name. Churcher and Kirker, Churchman and Kirk- 
man, are usually local ; cf . Bridge/ and Bridgman. 

The names Temple and Templeman were acquired 
from residence near one of the preceptories of the 
Knights Templars, and Spittlehouse (p. 34) is some- 
times to be accounted for in a similar way (Knights 
of the Hospital). We even find the surname Taber- 
nacle. Musters is Old Fr. .moustiers" (moutiers), common 
in French place-names, from Lat. monaster ium. The 
word how, still used for an arch in some old towns, 
has given the names Bow and Bowes. A medieval 
statute, recently revived to baffle the suffragettes, was 
originally directed against robbers and "pillers," i.e. 
plunderers, but the name Piller is for pillar ; cf. the 
French name Colonne. With these may be mentioned 
Buttress and Carnell, the latter from Old Fr. camel 
(creneau), a battlement. 

As general terms for larger dwellings we find Hall, 
House, also written Hose, and Seal, the last-named 
from the Germanic original which has given Fr. 
Lasalle, whence our surname Sale. To the same class 
belong Place, Plaice, as in Cumnor Place. The 

1 On the development in meaning of this word, first occurring 
in the phrase " to take sentrie," i.e. refuge, see my Romance of 
Words, ch. vii. 


possession of such surnames does not imply ancestral 
possession of Haddon Hall, Stafford House, etc., but 
merely that the founder of the family lived under 
the shadow of greatness. In compounds -house is 
generally treated as in "workus," e.g. Bacchus 
(p. 83), Bellows, Brewis, Duffus (dove), Kirkus, Loftus, 
Malthus, Windus (wynd, p. 128). In connection 
with Woodhouse it must be remembered that this 
name was given to the man who played the part 
of a " wild man of the woods " in processions and 
festivities. William Power, skinner, called "Wode- 
hous," died in London in 1391. Of similar origin is 
Greenman. The tavern sign of the Green Man is some- 
times explained as representing a forester in green, 
but it was probably at first equivalent to the German 
sign " Zum wilden Mann." Cassell is sometimes for 
Castle, but is more often a local German name of recent 
introduction. The northern Peel, a castle, as in the 
Isle of Man, was originally applied to a stockade, Old 
Fr. pel {pieu), a stake, Lat. palus. From it we have 
Pillman. Keep comes from the central tower of the 
castle, where the baron and his family kept, i.e. lived. 
A moated Grange is a poetic figment, for the word 
comes from Fr. grange, a barn (to Lat. granum), 
hence Granger. 

With Mill and the older Milne (p. 25) we may 
compare Mullins, Fr. Desmoulins. Barnes is some- 
times, but not always, what it seems (see p. 194) . With 
it we may put Leathes, from an obsolete Scandina- 
vian word for barn (see quot. p. 130), to which we owe 
also the names Leatham and Latham. Mr. Oldbuck's 
" ecstatic description " of the Roman camp with its 
pratorium was spoilt by Edie Ochiltree's disastrous 
interruption — 


" Praetorian here, praetorian there, I mind the bigging o't." 

(Antiquary, ch. iv.). 

The obsolete verb to big, i.e. build, whence Biggar, 
a builder, has given us Biggins, Biggs (p. 38), and 
Newbigging, while from to build we have Newbould 
and Newbolt. Cazenove, Ital. casa nuova, means ex- 
actly the same. Probably related to build is the 
obsolete Bottle, a building, whence Harbottle. A humble 
dwelling was called a Board — 

" Borde, a little house, lodging, or cottage of timber " 

(Cotgrave) — 

whence Boardman, Border. Other names were Booth, 
Lodge, and Folley, Fr. feuillee, a hut made of branches — 

" FeuilUe, an arbor, or bower, framed of leav'd plants, or 
branches " (Cotgrave). 

Scale, possibly connected with shealing, is a Scandi- 
navian word used in the north for a shepherd's hut, 
hence the surname Scales. In Bower and Bere, Beer, 
we have names related to byre, a hut, cow-house, 
whence Byers. Chaucer says of the poor widow — 

" Ful sooty was hir bour and eek hire halle." 

(B, 4022.) 

Hence the names Bowerman, Boorman, Burman. 

But the commonest of names for a humble dwelling 
was cot or cote — 

" Born and fed in rudenesse 
As in a cote or in an oxe stalle " 

(E, 397)— 

the inhabitant of which was a Cotman, Cotter, or, 
diminutively, Cottrell, Cotterill. Hence the frequent 
occurrence of the name Coates. There are also numer- 
ous compounds, e.g. Alcott (old), Norcott, Kingscote, 


and the many variants of Caldecott, Calcott, the 
cold dwelling, especially common as a village name 
in the vicinity of the Roman roads. It is supposed 
to have been applied, like Coldharbour, to deserted 
posts. The name Cotton is sometimes from the dative 
plural of the same word, though, when of French 
origin, it represents Coton, dim. of Cot, aphetic for 

Names such as Kitchin, Spence, a north-country 
word for pantry (see p. 186), and Mews, originally 
applied to the hawk-coops (see Mewer, p. 150), point 
to domestic employment. The simple Mew, common 
in Hampshire, is a bird nickname. Scammell 
preserves an older form of shamble(s), originally 
the benches on which meat was exposed for sale. 
The name Currie, or Curry, is too common to be 
referred entirely to the Scot. Corrie, a mountain 
glen, or to Curry in Somerset, and I conjecture that 
it sometimes represents Old Fr. and Mid. Eng. 
curie, a kitchen, which is the origin of Petty Cury in 
Cambridge and of the famous French name Curie. 
Nor can Furness be derived exclusively from the 
Furness district of Lancashire. It must sometimes 
correspond to the common French name Dufour, from 
four, oven. We also have the name Ovens. Stables, 
when not identical with Staples (p. 123), belongs to 
the same class as Mews. Chambers, found in Scotland 
as Chalmers, is official, the medieval de la Chambre 
often referring to the Exchequer Chamber of the City 
of London. Bellchambers has probably no connection 
with this word. It appears to be an imitative spelling 
of Belencombre, a place near Dieppe ; for the entry 
de Belencumbre is of frequeut occurrence. 

Places of confinement are represented by Gale, 


gaol (p. 32), Penn, whence Inkpen (Berkshire), Pond, 
Pound, and Penfold or Pinfold. But Gales is for Anglo- 
Fr. Galles, Wales. Butts comes from the archery 
ground, while Butt is rather to be referred to the 
French name Bout (p. 75) or to Budd (p. 75). Cor- 
dery, for de la corderie, of the rope-walk, has been 
confused with the much more picturesque Corderoy, 
i.e. cceur de roi. 

Shop Signs 

As is well known, medieval shops had signs instead 
of numbers, and traces of this custom are still to be 
seen in country towns. It is quite obvious that town 
surnames would readily spring into existence from such 
signs. The famous name Rothschild, always mispro- 
nounced in English, goes back to the "red shield" over 
Nathan Rothschild's shop in the Jewry of Frankfurt ; 
and within the writer's memory two brothers named 
Grainge in the little town of Uxbridge were familiarly 
known as Bible Grainge and Gridiron Grainge. Many 
names of animals are to be referred partly to this 
source, e.g. Bull, Hart, Lamb, Lyon, Ram, Roebuck, 
Stagg ; Cock, Falcon, Peacock, Raven, Swann, etc., all 
still common as tavern signs. The popinjay, or parrot, 
is still occasionally found as Pobgee, Popjoy. These 
surnames all have, of course, an alternative explana- 
tion (ch. xxiii.). Here also usually belong Angel and 
Virgin. But the largest class of such names probably 
consists of those taken from figures used in heraldry 
or from objects which indicated the craft practised. 
This would seem to be the explanation of Crownin- 
shield. Other examples are Arrow, Bell, Buckle, Cross- 
keys, Crowne, Crozier, Gauntlett, Hatt, Home, Image, 


Key, Littey, Meatyard, measuring wand — 

" Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in 
weight, or in measure" (Lev. xix. 35) — 

Mullett, 1 Rose, Shears, and perhaps Blades, Shipp, 
Spun, Starr, Sword. Thomas Palle, called " Sheres," 
died in London, 1376. 

But here again we must walk delicately. The 
Germanic name Hatto, borne by the wicked bishop who 
perished in the Mauseturm, gave the French name 
Hatt with the accusative form Hatton,* Horn is an old 
personal name, as in the medieval romance of King 
Horn, Shipp is a common provincialism for sheep} 
Starr has another explanation (p. 219) and Bell has 
several (p. 8). I should guess that Porteous was the 
sign used by some medieval writer of mass-books 
and breviaries. Its oldest form is the Anglo-Fr. 
porte-hors, corresponding to medieval Lat. portiforium, 
a breviary, lit. what one carries outside, a portable 
prayer-book — 

" For on my porthors here I make an oath." 

(B, 1321.) 

But as the name is found without prefix in the Hundred 
Rolls, it may have been a nickname conferred on some 
clericus who was proud of so rare a possession. 

1 A five-pointed star. Old Fr. molette, rowel of a spur. 

2 In Old French a. certain number of names, mostly of Germanic 
origin, had an accusative in -on, e.g. Guy, Guyon, Hugues, Hugon, 
From Lat. Pontius came Poinz, Poinson, whence our Poyntz, less 
pleasingly Punch, and Punshon. In the Pipe Rolls these are also 
spelt Pin-, whence Pinch, Pinchin, and Pinches. 

s Hence the connection between the ship and the ha'porth of tar. 



" Such, however, is the illusion of antiquity and wealth that 
decent and dignified men now existing boast their descent from 
these filthy thieves" (Emerson, English Traits, ch. iv.). 

Not every Norman or Old French name need be 
included in the group described by Emerson when 
talking down to an uneducated audience. In fact, 
it is probable that the majority of genuine French 
names belong to a later period, for, although the baron 
who accompanied the Conqueror would in many cases 
keep his old territorial designation, the minor ruffian 
would, as a rule, drop the name of the obscure hamlet 
from which he came and assume some surname more 
convenient in his new surroundings. Local names of 
Old French origin are usually taken from the provinces 
and larger towns which had a meaning for English 
ears. I have given examples of such in chapter xi. 
Of course it is easy to take a detailed map of 
Northern France and say, without offering any proof, 
that "Avery (p. 82) is from Evreux, Belcher (p. 196) 
from Bellecourt, Custance (p. 95) from Coutances," 
and so on. But any serious student knows this to be 
idiotic nonsense. The fact that, except in some noble 
families, such as de Vesci, whence Vesey, Voysey, and 
Scottish Veitch, the surname was not hereditary till 
centuries after the Conquest, justifies any bearer of a 



Norman name taken from a village or smaller locality 
in repudiating all connection with the ' ' filthy thieves 
and conjecturing descent from some decent artisan 
belonging to one of the later immigrations. 

That a considerable number of aristocratic families, 
and others, bear an easily recognizable French town 
or village name is of course well known, but it will 
usually be found that such names are derived from 
places which are as plentiful in France as our own 
Ashleys, Bartons, Burtons, Langleys, Newtons, Sut- 
tons, etc., are in England. In some cases a local 
French name has spread in an exceptional manner. 
Examples are Baines (Bains, 2 '), Gurney (Gournai, 6), 
Vernon (3) . But usually in such cases we find a large 
number of spots which may have given rise to the sur- 
name, e.g. Beaumont (46, without counting Belmont), 
Dampier (Dampierre, i.e. St. Peter's, 28), Daubeney, 
Dabney (Aubigne, 4, Aubigny, 17), Ferrers (Ferrieres, 
22), Nevill (Neuville, 58), Nugent (Nogent, 17), Villiers 
(58). This last name, representing Vulgar Lat. vil- 
larium, is the origin of Ger. -weiler, so common in 
village names along the old Roman roads, e.g. Baden- 
weiler, Froschweiler, etc. 

When we come to those surnames of this class which 

have remained somewhat more exclusive, we generally 

find that the place-name is also rare. Thus Hawtrey 

is from Hauterive (7), Pierpoint from Pierrepont (5), 

Furneaux from Fourneaux (5), Vipont and Vipan from 

Vieux-Pont (3), and there are three places called 

Percy. The following have two possible birthplaces 

1 The figures in brackets indicate the number of times that the 
French local name occurs in the Postal Directory. This is the usual 
explanation of Baines, which is found with de in the Hundred Rolls. 
But I think it was sometimes a nickname, bones, applied to a thin 
man. I find William Banes in Lancashire in 1252 ; cf. Langbain, 


each — Bellew or Pellew (Belleau), Cantelo (Canteloup 1 ), 
Mauleverer (Maulevrier), Mompesson (Mont Pincon or 
Pinchon), Montmorency, Mortimer (Morte-mer). The 
following are unique — Carteret, Doll 1 (Dol), Fiennes, 
Fumival (Fournival), Greville, Har court, Melville 
(Meleville), Montr esor, Mowbray (Monbrai), Sackville 
(Sacquenville), V enables. These names are taken at 
random, but the same line of investigation can 
be followed up by any reader who thinks it worth 

Apart from aristocratic questions, it is interesting 
to notice the contamination which has occurred be- 
tween English and French surnames of local origin. 
The very common French suffix -ville, is regularly 
confounded with our -field. Thus Summerfield is the 
same name as Somerville, Dangerfield is for d'Anger- 
ville, Belfield for Belleville, Blomfield for Blonville, 
and Stutfield for Estouteville, while Grenville, Granville 
have certainly become confused with our Grenfell, 
green fell, and Greenfield. Camden notes that Turber- 
ville became Troublefield, and I have found the inter- 
mediate Trubleville in the twelfth century. The case of 
Tess Durbeyfield will occur to every reader. The suffix 
-fort has been confused with our -ford and -forth, so that 
Rochford is in some cases for Rochefort and Beeforth 
for Beaufort or Belfort. With the first syllable of 
Beeforth we may compare Beevor for Beauvoir, Bel- 
voir, Beecham for Beauchamp, and Beamish for Beau- 
mais. The name Beamish actually occurs as that of 
a village in Durham, the earlier form of which points 
to Old French origin, from beau mes, Lat. bellum 
mansum, a fair manse, i.e. dwelling. Otherwise it 

1 But the doublet Chanteloup, champ de loup, is common. 

2 This may also be a metronymic, from Dorothy. 


would be tempting to derive the surname Beamish 
from Ger. bohmisch, earlier behmisch, Bohemian. 

A brief survey of French spot-names which have 
passed into English will show that they were acquired 
in exactly the same way as the corresponding English 
names. Norman ancestry is, however, not always to 
be assumed in this case. Until the end of the four- 
teenth century a large proportion of our population 
was bi-lingual, and names accidentally recorded in 
Anglo-French may occasionally have stuck. Thus 
the name Boyes or Boyce may spring from a man of 
pure English descent who happened to be described as 
du bois instead of atte wood. This is, however, rarely 
the case. While English spot-names have as a rule 
shed both the preposition and the article (p. 104), 
French usually keeps one or both, though these were 
more often lost when the name passed into England. 
Thus our Roach is not a fish-name, but corresponds 
to Fr. Laroche or Delaroche ; and the blind pirate Pew, 
if not a Welshman, ap Hugh, was of the race of 
Dupuy, from Old Fr. puy, a hill, Lat. podium, a 
height, gallery, etc., whence also our pew, once a 
raised platform. 

In some cases the prefix has passed into English ; 
e.g. Diprose is from des preaux, of the meadows, a 
name assumed by Boileau among others. There are, 
of course, plenty of places in France called Les 
Preaux, but in the case of such a name we need not 
go further than possession of, or residence by, a 
piece of grass-land — 

" Je sais un paysan qu'on appelait Gros-Pierre, 
Qui, n'ayant pour tout bien qu'un seul quartier de terre, 
Y fit tout alentour faire un fosse bourbeux, 
Et de monsieur de I'Isle en prit le nom pompeux." 

(Moli&re, L'Ecole des Femmes, i. 1.) 


The Old French singular fireal is perhaps the 
origin of Pratt, Prawle. Similarly Preece, sometimes 
for Price, is earlier found as Prees, i.e. des fires. 
With Boyes (p. 140) we may compare Tallis from Fr. 
taillis, a copse (tailler, to cut). Garrick, a Huguenot 
name, is Fr. garigue, an old word for heath. 

Trees have in all countries a strong influence on 
topographical names, and hence on surnames. Frean, 
though usually from the Scandinavian name Frsena, 
is sometimes for Fr. fr£ne, ash, Lat. fraxinus, while 
Cain and Kaines 1 are Norm, queue (chene), oak. The 
modern French for beech is hetre, Du. heester, but Lat. 
fagus has given a great many dialect forms which 
have supplied us with the surnames Fay, Foy, and 
the plural dim. Failes. Here also I should put the 
name Defoe, assumed by the writer whose father was 
satisfied with Foe. With Quatrefages, four beeches, 
we may compare such English names as Fiveash, 
Twelvetrees, and Snooks, for " seven oaks." 

In Latin the suffix -Uum was used to designate a 
grove or plantation. This suffix, or its plural -eta, is 
very common in France, becoming successively -ei(e), 
-oi(e), -ai(e). The name Dobree is a Guernsey spelling 
of d'Aubray, Lat. arboretum, which was dissimilated 
(p. 36) into alboretum. Darblay, the name of Fanny 
Burney's husband, is a variant. From au(l)ne, alder, 
we have aunai, whence our Dawnay. So also frenai 
has given Freeney, chenai, Chaney, and the Norm, quenai 
is one origin of Kenney, while the older chesnai appears 
in Chesney. Houssaie from houx, holly, gives Hussey ; 
chastenai, chestnut grove, exists in Nottingham as 
Chasteney ; coudrai, hazel copse, gives Cowdrey and 

1 There is one family of Keynes derived specifically from Cha- 
haignes (Sarthe). 


Cowdery ; Verney and Varney are from vernal, grove of 
alders, of Celtic origin, and Viney corresponds to the 
French name Vinoy, Lat. vinetum. We have also 
Chinnery, Chenerey from the extended chSnerai, and 
Pomeroy from pommerai. Here again the name offers 
no clue as to the exact place of origin. There are 
in the French postal directory eight places called 
Epinay, from epine, thorn, but these do not exhaust 
the number of " spinnies " in France. Also connected 
with tree-names are Conyers, Old Fr. coigniers, quince- 
trees, and Pirie, Perry, Anglo-Fr. perie, a collective 
from peire {poire). 

Among Norman names for a homestead the favourite 
is mesnil, from Vulgar Lat. mansionile, which enters 
into a great number of local names. It has given our 
Meynell, and is also the first element of Mainwaring, 
Mannering from mesnil-Warin. The simple mes, a 
southern form of which appears in Dumas, has given 
us Mees and Meese, which are thus etymological 
doublets of the word manse. With Beamish (p. 139) 
we may compare Bellasis, from bel-assis, fairly situated. 
Poyntz is sometimes for des ftonts ; cf . Pierpoint for 
Pierrepont. Travers or Travis means a crossing, or a 
road starting off from the highway. 

Even Norman names which were undoubtedly borne 
by leaders among the Conqueror's companions are 
now rarely found among the noble, and many a des- 
cendant of these once mighty families cobbles the 
shoes of more recent invaders. Even so the descend- 
ants of the Spanish nobles who conquered California 
are glad to peddle vegetables at the doors of San 
Francisco magnates whose fathers dealt in old clothes 
in some German Judengasse. 



" When Adam delved and Eve span, 
Who was then the gentleman ? " 

Chant of Wat Tyler's followers. 

The occupative name would, especially in villages, 
tend to become the most natural surname. It is not 
therefore surprising to find so large a number of this 
class among our commonest surnames, e.g. Smith, 
Taylor, Wright, Walker, Turner, Clark, Cooper, etc. 
And, as the same craft often persisted in a family for 
generations, it was probably this type of surname 
which first became hereditary. On the other hand, 
such names as Cook, Gardiner, Carter, etc., have no> 
doubt in some cases prevailed over another surname 
lawfully acquired (see p. 5). It is impossible to fix 
an approximate date for the definite adoption of sur- 
names of this class. It occurred earlier in towns 
than in the country, and by the middle of the four- 
teenth century we often find in the names of London 
citizens a contradiction between the surname and the 
trade-name ; e.g. Walter Ussher, tanner, John Botoner, 
girdler, Roger Carpenter, pepperer, Richard le Hunte, 
chaundeler, occur 1336-52. The number of sur- 
names belonging to this group is immense, for every 
medieval trade and craft was highly specialized and 
its privileges were jealously guarded. The general 



public, which now, like Issachar, crouches between the 
trusts and the trades unions, was in the middle ages 
similarly victimized by the guilds of merchants and 
craftsmen. Then, as now, it grumblingly recognized 
that, " Plus 9a change, plus ca reste la meme chose," 
and went on enduring. 1 

By dealing with a few essential points at the outset 
we shall clear the ground for considering the various 
groups of surnames connected with trade, craft, pro- 
fession or office. To begin with, it is certain that such 
names as Pope, Cayzer, King, Earl, Bishop are nick- 
names, very often conferred on performers in religious 
plays or acquired in connection with popular festivals 
and processions — 

" Names also have been taken of civil honours, dignities and 
estate, as King, Duke, Prince, Lord, Baron, Knight, Valvasor or 
Vavasor, Squire, Castellan, partly for that their ancestours were 
such, served such, acted such parts ; or were Kings of the Bean, 
Christmas-Lords, etc." (Camden). 

We find corresponding names in other languages, 
and some of the French names, usually preceded by 
the definite article, have passed into English, e.g. 
Lempriere, a Huguenot name, and Leveque, whence our 
Levick, Vick, Veck (p. 33). Baron generally appears 
as Barron, and Duke, used in Mid. English of any 
leader, is often degraded to Duck, whence the dim. 
Duckett. But all three of these names can also be 

1 If a student of philology were allowed to touch on such high 
matters as legislation, I would moralize on the word kiddle, meaning 
an illegal kind of weir used for fish-poaching, which has given our 
name Kiddell. From investigations made with a view to discovering 
the origin of the word, I came to the conclusion that all the legisla- 
tive powers in England spent three centuries in passing enactments 
against these devices, with the inevitable consequence that they 
became ever more numerous. 


referred to Marmaduke. We have also the imitative 
Ducat. It would be tempting to put Palsgrave in 
this class. Prince Rupert, the Pfalzgraf, i.e. Count 
Palatine, was known as the Palsgrave in his day, but 
I have not found the title early enough. 

With Lord we must put the northern Laird, and, 
in my opinion, Senior ; for, if we notice how much 
commoner Young is than Old, and Fr. Lejeune than 
Levieux, we must conclude that Junior, a very rare 
surname, ought to be of much more frequent occur- 
rence than Senior, Synyer, a fairly common name. 
There can be little doubt that Senior is usually a 
latinization of the medieval le seigneur, whence also 
Saynor. Knight is not always knightly, for Anglo- 
Sax, cniht means servant ; cf . Ger. Knecht. The word 
got on in the world, with the consequence that the 
name is very popular, while its medieval compeers, 
knave, varlet, villain, have, even when adorned with 
the adj. good, dropped out of the surname list. Bon- 
valet, Bonvarlet, Bonvillain are still common surnames 
in France. From Knight we have the compound Road- 
night, a mounted servitor. Thus Knight is more often 
a true occupative name, and the same applies to Dring 
or Dreng, a Scandinavian name of similar meaning. 

Other names from the middle rungs of the social 
ladder are also to be taken literally, e,g. Franklin, a 
freeholder, Anglo-Fr. frankelein — 

" How called you your franklin, Prior Aylmer ? " 
" Cedric," answered the Prior, " Cedric the Saxon " 

(Ivanhoe, ch. i.) — 

Burgess, Freeman, Freeborn, this latter sometimes for 
Freebairn and existing already as the Anglo-Saxon 
personal name Freobeorn. Denison (p. 14) is occa- 


sionally an accommodated form of denizen, Anglo-Fr. 
deinzein, a burgess enjoying the privileges belonging 
to those who lived " deinz (in) la cite." In 1483 a 
certain Edward Jhonson — 

" Sued to be mayde Denison for fer of y e payment of y subsedy." 
[Letter to Sir William Stonor, June 9, 1483-) 

Bond is from Anglo-Sax. bonda, which means simply 
agriculturist. The word is of Icelandic origin and 
related to Boor, another word which has deteriorated 
and is rare as a surname, though the name Bauer 
is common enough in Germany. Holder is translated 
by Tennant. For some other names applied to the 
humbler peasantry see p. 133. 

To return to the social summit, we have Kingson, 
often confused with the local Kingston, and its Anglo- 
French equivalent Fauntleroy. Faunt, aphetic for 
Anglo-Fr. enfaunt, is common in Mid. English. When 
the mother of Moses had made the ark of bulrushes, 
or, as Wyclif calls it, the " jonket of resshen," she — 

" Putte the litil faunt with ynne " 

(Exodus ii. 3). 

The Old French accusative (p. 9, n.) was also used 
as a genitive, as in Bourg-le-roi, Bourg-la-reine, corre- 
sponding to our Kingsbury and Queensborough. We 
have a genitive also in Flowerdew, found in French 
as Flourdieu. Lower, in his Patronymica Britannica 
(i860), the first attempt at a dictionary of English 
surnames, 1 conjectures Fauntleroy to be from an 

1 I have quoted this " etymology " because it is too funny 
to be lost; but a good deal of useful information can be found 
in Lower, especially with regard to the habitat of well-known 


ancient French war-cry D6fendez le roi ! for " in course 
of time, the meaning of the name being forgotten, the 
de would be dropped, and the remaining syllables 
would easily glide into Fauntleroy." 

Names of ecclesiastics must usually be nicknames, 
because medieval churchmen were not entitled to have 
descendants. This appears clearly in such an entry as 
" Johannes Monacus et uxor ejus Emma," living in 
Kent in the twelfth century. But these names are so 
numerous that I have put them with the Canterbury 
Pilgrims (ch. xvii.). Three of them maybe mentioned 
here in connection with a small group of occupative 
surnames of puzzling form. We have noticed (p. 104) 
that monosyllabic, and some other, surnames of local 
origin frequently take an -s, partly by analogy with 
names like Wills, Walts, etc. We rarely find this -s 
in the case of occupative names, but Parsons, Vicars 
or Vickers, and Monks are common, and in fact the 
first two are scarcely found without the -s. To these 
we may add Reeves (p. 164), Grieves (p. 181), and the 
well-known Nottingham name Mellers (p. 164). The 
explanation seems to be that these names are true 
genitives, and that John Parsons was John the 
Parson's man, while John Monks was employed by 
the monastery. Vigors or Vigers I guess to be formed 
in the same way from Fr. viguier — 

" Viguier, the ordinary judge of a country town " (Cotgrave). 

Another exceptional group is that of names formed 
by adding -son to the occupative names, the com- 
monest being perhaps Clarkson, Cookson, Smithson, and 
Wrightson'. To this class belongs Grayson, which 
Bardsley clearly shows to be equivalent to the grieve 's 


Our occupative names are both English and French, 1 
the two languages being represented by those impor- 
tant tradesmen Baker and Butcher. The former is 
reinforced by Bullinger, Fr. boulanger, and Furner • 

" Fournier, a baker, or one that keeps, or governs a common 
oven" (Cotgrave). 

In some other cases the English and French names 
for the same trade both survive, e.g. Cheeseman and 
Firminger, Old Fr. formagier (frontage). 

We have as endings -er, -ier, the latter often made 
into -yer, -ger, as in Lockyer, Sawyer, Kidger (p. 181), 
Woodger,* and -or, -our, as in Taylor, Jenoure (p. 33). 
The latter ending, corresponding to Modern Fr. -eur, 
represents Lat. -or, -orem, but we tack it on to English 
words as in "sailor," or substitute it for -er, -ier, as 
in Fermor, for Farmer, Fr. fermier. In the Privy Purse 
Expenses of that careful monarch Henry VII. occurs 
the item — 

" To bere drunken at a fermors house . . is." 

In the same way we replace the Fr. -our, -eur by -er, as 
in Turner, Fr. toumeur, Ginner, Jenner for Jenoure. 

The ending -er, -ier represents the Lat. -arius. It 
passed not only into French, but also into the 
Germanic languages, replacing the Teutonic agential 
suffix which consisted of a single vowel. We have 
a few traces of this oldest group of occupative names, 
e.g. Webb, Mid. Eng. webbe, Anglo-Sax. webb-a, and 
Hunt, Mid. Eng. hunte, Anglo-Sax. hunt-a — 

"With hunte and home and houndes hym bisyde " 

(A, 1678)— 

1 We have also a few Latinizations. This type of name is much 
commoner in Germany, e.g. Avenarius, oat-man, Fabricius, smith, 
Textor, weaver, etc. Mercator, of map projection fame, was a 
German named Kaufmann. 

2 Woodyer, Woodger may also be for wood-hewer. See Stanier 
(p. 21). 


which still hold the field easily against Webber and 
Hunter. So also, the German name Beck represents 
Old High Ger. becch-o, baker. To these must be added 
Kemp, a champion, a very early loan-word connected 
with Lat. campus, field, and Wright, originally the 
worker, Anglo-Sax. wyrht-a. Camp is sometimes for 
Kemp, but may be also from the latinized in campo, 
i.e. Field. Of similar formation is Clapp, from an 
Anglo-Sax. nickname, the clapper — 

" Osgod Clapa, King Edward Confessor's staller, was cast upon 
the pavement of the Church by a demon's hand for his insolent 
pride in presence of the relics (of St. Edmund, King and Martyr)." 
(W. H. Hutton, Bampton Lectures, 1903.) 

The ending -ster was originally feminine, and 
applied to trades chiefly carried on by women, e.g. 
Baxter, Bagster, baker, Brewster, Simister, sempster, 
Webster, etc., but in process of time the distinction 
was lost, so that we find Blaxter and Whitster for 
Blacker, Blaker, and Whiter, both of which, curiously 
enough, have the same meaning — 

" Bleykester or whytster, candidarius" (Prompt. Pan.) — 

for this black represents Mid. Eng. Mac, related to 
bleak and bleach, and meaning pale — 

"Blake, wan of colour, blesme ipUme)" (Palsgrave). 

Occupative names of French origin are apt to 
vary according to the period and dialect of their 
adoption. For Butcher we find also Booker, Bowker, 
and sometimes the later Bosher, Busher, with the 
same sound for the ch as in Labouchlre, the lady 
butcher. But Busher is usually wood-monger, Old 
Fr. busche (buche), log, and Boger and Bodger represent 
rather an archaic spelling of Bowyer. Butcher, origin- 
ally a dealer in goat's flesh, Fr. bouc, has ousted 


flesher. German still has half a dozen surnames de- 
rived from names for this trade, e.g. Fleischer, Fleisch- 
mann, 1 Metzger, Schlechter; but our flesher has been 
absorbed by Fletcher, a maker of arrows, Fr. fleche. 
Fletcher Gate at Nottingham was formerly Flesher 
Gate. The undue extension of Taylor has already 
been mentioned (p. 44). Another example is Barker, 
which has swallowed up the Anglo-Fr. berquier, a 
shepherd, Fr. berger, with the result that the Barkers 
outnumber the Tanners by three to one — ■ 

" ' What craftsman are you ? ' said our King, 
' I pray you, tell me now.' 
' I am a barker,' quoth the tanner ; 
' What craftsman art thou ? ' " 

(Edward IV. and the Tanner of Tamworth.) 

The name seems to have been applied also to the 
man who barked trees for the tanner. 

With Barker it seems natural to mention Mewer, 
of which I find one representative in the London 
Directory. The medieval le muur had charge of the 
mews in which the hawks were kept while moulting 
(Fr. muer, Lat. mutare). Hence the phrase " mewed 
up." The word seems to have been used for any kind 
of coop. Chaucer tells us of the Franklin — 

" Ful many a fat partrich hadde he in muw " (A, 349). 

I suspect that some of the Muirs (p. 113) spring 
from this important office. Similarly C layer has been 
absorbed by the noble Clare, Kayer, the man by the 
quay, by Care, and Blower, whether of horn or bellows, 
has paid tribute to the local Bloor, Blore. Sewer, an 

L Hellenized as Sarkander. This was a favourite trick of German 
scholars at the Renaissance period. Well-known examples are 
Melancthon (Schwarzerd), Neander (Neumann). 


attendant at table, aphetic for Old Fr. asseour, a 
setter, is now a very rare name. As we know that 
sewer, a drain, became shore, it is probable that the 
surname Shore sometimes represents this official or 
servile title. And this same name Shore, though not, 
particularly common, and susceptible of a simple local 
origin, labours under grave suspicion of having also 
enriched itself at the expense of the medieval le suur, 
the shoemaker, Lat. sutor-em, whence Fr. Lesueur. 
This would inevitably become Sewer and then Shore, 
as above. Perhaps, in the final reckoning, Shaw is 
not altogether guiltless, and we also find the surname 

The medieval le suur brings us to another problem, 
viz. the poor show made by the craftsmen who clothed 
the upper and lower extremities of our ancestors. 
The name hatter, once frequent enough, appears to be 
extinct, and Capper is not very common. The name 
shoemaker has met with the same fate, though the 
trade is represented by the Lat. Sutor, whence Scot. 
Souter. Here belong also Cor drier, Codner, 1 Old Fr. 
cordouanier (cor downier), a cordwainer, a worker in 
Cordovan leather, and Corser, Cosser, earlier corviser, 
corresponding to the French name Courvoisier, also 
derived from Cordova. Chaucer, in describing the 
equipment of Sir Thopas, mentions — 

"His shoon of cordewane" (B, 1922). 

The scarcity of Groser, grocer, is not surprising, for 
the word, aphetic for engrosser, originally meaning a 
wholesale dealer, one who sold en gros, is of compara- 
tively late occurrence. His medieval representative 

1 Confused, of course, with the local Codnor (Derbyshire). 


was Spicer. On the other hand, many occupative 
names which are now obsolete, or practically so, still 
survive strongly as surnames. Many examples of these 
will be found in chapters xvii.-xx. 

Some occupative names are rather deceptive. Kisser, 
which is said still to exist, means a maker of cuishes, 
thigh-armour, Fr. cuisses — 

" Helm, cuish, and breastplate streamed with gore." 

{Lord of the Isles, iv. 33.) 

Corker is for caulker, i.e. one who stopped the chinks 
of ships and casks, originally with lime (Lat. calx) — 

" Sir, we have a chest beneath the hatches, caulk 'd and 
bitumed ready" (Pericles iii. 1). 

Cleaver represents Old Fr. clavier, a mace-bearer. 
Lat. clava, a club, or a door-keeper, Lat. clavis, a key. 
Perhaps even clavus, a nail, must also be considered, 
for a Latin vocabulary of the fifteenth century tells 
us — 

" Clawes, -vos vel -vas qui fert sit claviger." 

Neither Bowler nor Scorer are connected with cricket. 
The former made wooden bowls, and the latter was 
sometimes . a scourer, or scout, Mid. Eng. scurrour, 
from the Old Fr. verb escourre, Lat. excurrere, to 
run out, but perhaps more frequently a peaceful 
scullion, Fr. ecurer, to scour, Lat. ex-curare — 
" Escureur, a scourer, cleanser, feyer 1 " (Cotgrave). 

A Leaper did not always leap (p. 165) . In some cases 
the name is for le leper, a common medieval entry, 
generally to be regarded as a nickname. In others it 
may represent a maker of leaps, i.e. fish baskets, or 
perhaps a man who hawked fish in such a basket. A 

1 A sweeper, now swallowed up, as a surname, by Fair. 


Slayer made slays, part of a weaver's loom, and a 
Bloomer worked in a bloom-smithy, from Anglo-Sax. 
blbma, a mass of hammered iron. Weightman and 
Wayman represent Mid. Eng. wa\eman, hunter; cf. 
the common German surname Weidemann, of cognate 
origin. Reader and Booker are not usually literary. 
The former is for Reeder, a thatcher — ■ 

" Redare of howsys, calamator, arundinarius " (Prompt. Pan.) — 

and the latter is a Norman variant of Butcher. 

The spelling of occupative surnames often differs 
from that now associated with the trade itself. In 
Naylor, Taylor, and Tyler 1 we have the archaic pre- 
ference for y. Our ancestors thought sope as good 
a spelling as soap, hence the name Soper. A Plummer, 
i.e. a man who worked in lead, Lat. plumbum, is now 
written, by etymological reaction, plumber, though 
the restored letter is not sounded. A man who dealt 
in 'arbs originated the name Arber, which we should 
now replace by herbalist. We have a restored spelling 
in clerk, though educated people pronounce the word 
as it was once written — 

" Clarke, or he thatreadeth distinctly, clericus." 

(Holy oak's Lat. Diet., 1612.) 

In many cases we are unable to say exactly what is 
the occupation indicated. We may assume that a 
Setter and a Tipper did setting and tipping, and both 
are said to have been concerned in the arrow industry. 
If this is true, I should say that Setter might repre- 
sent the Old Fr. saieteur, arrow-maker, from saiete, 

1 It may be noted here that John Tiler of Dartford, who killed a 
tax-gatherer for insulting his daughter, was not Wat Tiler, who was 
killed at Smithfield for insulting the King. The confusion between 
the two has led to much sympathy being wasted on a ruffian. 


an arrow, Lat. sagitta. But in a medieval vocabulary 
we find " setter of mes, dapifer," which would make 
it the same as Sewer (p. 151). Similarly, when we 
consider the number of objects that can be tipped, 
we shall be shy of defining the activity of the Tipper 
too closely. I conjecture that a Trinder, earlier 
trender, was the same as a Roller, but I cannot say 
what they rolled — 

" Lat hym rotten and trenden withy nne hymself the lyght of his 
ynwarde sighte " (Boece, 1043). 

There are also some names of this class to which 
we can with certainty attribute two or more origins. 
Boulter means a maker of bolts for crossbows, 1 but also 
a sifter, from the obsolete verb to bolt — 

" The fanned snow, that's bolted 
By the northern blasts twice o'er." 

(Winter's Tale, iv. 3.) 

Corner means horn-blower, Fr. cor, horn, and is also a 
contraction of coroner, but its commonest origin is local, 
in angulo, in the corner. Currer and Curry er are gener- 
ally connected with leather, but Henry VII. bestowed 
£3 on the currer that brought tidings of Perkin War- 
beck. Garner has five possible origins : (i) a contrac- 
tion of gardener, (ii) from the French personal name 
Gamier, Ger. Werner, (iii) Old Fr. grenier, grain-keeper, 
(iv) Old Fr. garennier, warren keeper, (v) local, from 
garner, Fr. grenier, Lat. granarium. In the next chap- 
ter will be found, as a specimen problem, an investiga- 
tion of the name Rutter. 

Two phonetic phenomena should also be noticed. 
One is the regular insertion of n before the ending 
-ger, as in Firminger (p. 148), Massinger (p. 185), Pot- 

1 How many people who use the expression " bolt upright " 
associate it with " straight as a dart " ? 


tinger (p. 176), and in Arminger, Clavinger, from the 
latinized armiger, esquire, and claviger, mace-bearer, 
etc. (p. 152). The other is the fact that many occu- 
pative names ending in -rer lose the -er by dissimila- 
tion (p. 36). Examples are Armour for armourer, 
Barter for barterer, Buckler for bucklerer, but also 
for buckle-maker, Callender for calenderer, one who 
calendered, i.e., pressed, cloth — 

" And my good friend the callender 
Will lend his horse to go." 

(John Gilpin, 1. 22) — 

Coffer, for cofferer, a treasurer, Cover, for coverer, 
i.e. tiler, Fr. couvreur, when it does not correspond 
to Fr. cuvier, i.e. a maker of cuves, vats, Ginger, 
Grammer, for grammarer, Paternoster, maker of pater- 
nosters or rosaries, Pepper, Sellar, for cellarer (see p. 29), 
Tabor, for Taberer, player on the taber. Here also 
belongs Treasure, for treasurer. Salter is sometimes 
for sautrier, a player on the psaltery. We have the 
opposite process in poulterer for Poulter (p. 15), and 
caterer for Cator (p. 33). 

Such names as Ginger, Pepper, may however belong 
to the class of nicknames conferred on dealers in cer- 
tain commodities ; cf . Pescod, Peskett, from pease-cod. 
Of this we have several examples which can be con- 
firmed by foreign parallels, e.g. Garlick, found in 
German as Knoblauch, 1 Straw, represented in German 
by the cognate name Stroh, and Pease, which is 
certified by Fr. Despois. We find Witepease in the 
twelfth century. 

Especially common are those names which deal 
with the two staple foods of the country, bread and 

1 The cognate Eng. clove-leek occurs as a surname in the Ramsey 


beer. In German we find several compounds of Brot, 
bread, and one of the greatest of chess-players bore 
the amazing name Zuckertort, sugar-cake. In French 
we have such names as Painchaud, Painleve, Pain- 
tendre — 

"Eugene Aram was usher, in 1744, to the Rev. Mr. Pairiblanc, in 
Piccadilly" (Bardsley). 

Hence our Cakebread and Whitbread were probably 

names given to bakers. Simnel is explained in the 

same way, and Lambert Simnel is understood to have 

been a baker's lad, but the name could equally well 

be from Fr. Simonel, dim. of Simon. Wastall is found 

in the Hundred Rolls as wastel, Old Fr. gastel (gdteau) . 

Here also belongs Cracknell — 

" Craquelin, a cracknell ; made of the yolks of egges, water, 
and flower; and fashioned like a hollow trendle" (Cotgrave). 

Goodbeer is explained by Bardsley as a perversion of 
Godber (p. 72), which may be true, but the name is also 
to be taken literally. We have Ger. Gutbier, and the 
existence of Sourale in the Hundred Rolls and Sower- 
butts at the present day justifies us in accepting both 
Goodbeer and Goodale at their face- value. But Rice 
is an imitative form of Welsh Rhys, Reece, and Salt, 
when not derived from Salt in Stafford, is from Old 
Fr. sault, 1 a wood, Lat. saltus. It is doubtful whether 
the name Cheese is to be included here. Jan Kees, for 
John Cornelius, said to have been a nickname for 
a Hollander, may easily have reached the Eastern 
counties. Bardsley's earliest instance for the name is 
John Chese, who was living in Norfolk in 1273. But 
still I find Furmage as a medieval surname. We also 

1 This is common in place-names, and I should suggest, as a guess, 
that Sacheverell is from the village of Sault-Chevreuil-du-Tronchet 


have the dealer in meat represented by the classical 
example of Hogsflesh, with which we may compare 
Mutton and Veal, two names which may be seen fairly 
near each other in Hammersmith Road (but for these 
see also p. 223), and I have known a German named 
Kalbfleisch. Names of this kind would sometimes come 
into existence through the practice of crying wares; 
though if Mr. Rottenherring, who was a freeman of 
York in 1332, obtained his in this way, he must have 
deliberately ignored an ancient piece of wisdom. 



" Howe sayst thou, man ? am not I a joly rutter ? " 

(Skelton, Magnyfycence, 1. 762.) 

The fairly common name Rutter is a good example of 
the difficulty of explaining a surname derived from a 
trade or calling no longer practised. Even so careful 
an authority as Bardsley has gone hopelessly astray 
over this name. He says, " German ritter, a rider, 
i.e. a trooper," and quotes from Halliwell, " rutter, a 
rider, a trooper, from the German ; a name given to 
mercenary soldiers engaged from Brabant, etc." Now 
this statement is altogether opposed to chronology. 
The name occurs as le roter, rotour, ruter in the Hundred . 
Rolls of 1273, i.e. more than two centuries before any 
German name for trooper could possibly have become 
familiar in England. Any stray Mid. High Ger. Riter 
would have been assimilated to the cognate Eng. Rider. 
It is possible that some German Reuters have become 
English Rutters in comparatively modern times, but 
the German surname Reuter has nothing to do with 
a trooper. It represents Mid. High Ger. riutcere, a 
clearer of land, from the verb riuten (reuteri), cor- 
responding to Low Ger. roden, and related to our royd, 
a clearing (p. in). This word is apparently not con- 
nected with our root, though it means to root out, 



but ultimately belongs to a root ru which appears 
in Lat. rutrum, a spade, rutabulum, a rake, etc. 

There is another Ger. Renter, a trooper, which has 
given the sixteenth-century Eng. rutter, but not as a 
surname. The word appears in German about 1500, 
i e. rather late for the surname period, and comes 
from Du. ruiter, a mercenary trooper. The German 
for trooper is Reiter, really the same word as Ritter, a 
knight, the two forms having been differentiated in 
meaning ; cf . Fr. cavalier, a trooper, and chevalier, a 
knight. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
Ger. Reiter was confused with, and supplanted by, this 
borrowed word Renter, which was taken to mean 
rider, and we find the cavalry called Reuterei well 
into the eighteenth century. As a matter of fact the 
two words are quite unrelated, though the origin of 
Du. ruiter is disputed. 

The New English Dictionary gives, from the year 
1506, rutter (var. ruter, ruiter), a cavalry soldier, especi- 
ally German, from Du. ruiter, whence Ger. Renter, as 
above. It connects the Dutch word with medieval 
Lat. rutarius, i.e. ruptarius, which is also Kluge's 1 view. 
But Franck s sees phonetic difficulties and prefers to 
regard ruiter as belonging rather to ruiten, to uproot. 
The application of the name up-rooter to a lawless 
mercenary is not unnatural. 

But whatever be the ultimate origin of this Dutch 
and German military word, it is sufficiently obvious that 
it cannot have given an English surname which is 
already common in the thirteenth century. There is 
a much earlier claimant in the field. The New English 
Dictionary has roter (1297), var. roto'ur, rotor, and 

1 Deutsches Etymologisches Worterbuch. 

2 Etymologisch Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal. 


router (1379), a lawless person, robber, ruffian, from Old 
Fr. rotter (routier), and also the form rutar, used by 
Philemon Holland, who, in his translation of Camden's 
Britannia (1610), says "That age called foraine and 
willing souldiours rutars." The reference is to King 
John's mercenaries, c. 1215. Fr. routier, a mercenary, 
is usually derived from route, a band, Lat. rupta, a 
piece broken off, a detachment. References to the 
grandes routes, the great mercenary bands which over- 
ran France in the fourteenth century, are common 
in French history. But the word was popularly, and 
naturally, connected withroute, Lat. (via) rupta, a high- 
way, so that Godefroy l separates routier, a vagabond, 
from routier, a bandit soldier. Cotgrave has — 

" Routier, an old traveller, one that by much trotting up and 
down is grown acquainted with most waies ; and hence, an old 
beaten souldier ; one whom a long practise hath made experienced 
in, or absolute master of, his profession ; and (in evill part) an old 
crafty fox, notable beguiler, ordinary deceiver, subtill knave ; also, 
a purse-taker, or a robber by the high way side." 

It is impossible to determine the relative shares of 
route, a band, and route, a highway, in this definition, 
but there has probably been natural confusion between 
two words, separate in meaning, though etymologically 
identical. Fr. reitre, a German trooper, which repre- 
sents Ger. Reiter or Reuter, appears in the sixteenth 
century with practically the meaning of routier. In 
fact un vieux reitre and un vieux routier are used in- 
differently for an artful old dodger, an old soldier in 
the bad sense. Victor Hugo couples the two words — 

" Au-dedans, routiers, reitres, 
Vont battant le pays et briilant la moisson." 

(Ruy Bias, iii. 2.) 

1 Dictionnaire de I'ancien Franqais, 


Now our thirteenth-century rotors and ruters may 
represent Old Fr. routier, and have been names applied 
to a mercenary soldier or a vagabond. But this cannot 
be considered certain. If we consult du Cange, 1 we 
find, s.v. rumpere, " ruptarii, pro ruptuarii, quidam 
prsedones sub xi saeculutn, ex rusticis . . . collecti ac 
conflati," which suggests connection with " ruptuarius, 
colonus qui agrum seu terrain rumpit, proscindit, 
colit," i.e. that the ruptarii, also called rutarii, rutharii, 
rotharii, rotarii, etc., were so named because they were 
revolting peasants, i.e. men connected with the roture, 
or breaking of the soil, from which we get roturier, 
a plebeian. That would still connect our Rutters with 
Lat. rumpere, but by a third road. 

Finally, Old French has one more word which seems 
to me quite as good a candidate as any of the others, 
viz. roteur, a player on the rote, i.e. the fiddle used by 
the medieval minstrels, Chaucer says of his Frere — 

" Wel koude he synge and playen on a rote." 

(A, 236.) 

The word is possibly of Celtic origin (Welsh crwth) and 
a doublet of the archaic crowd, or crowth, a fiddle. 
Both rote and crowth are used by Spenser. Crowd is 
perhaps not yet obsolete in dialect, and the fiddler 
in Hudibras is called Crowdero. Thus Rutter may be 
a doublet of Crowther. There may be other possible 
etymologies for Rutter, but those discussed will suffice 
to show that the origin of occupative names is not 
always easily guessed. 

1 Glossarium ad Scriptores media et inftmcB Latinitatis. 




" In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay, 
Redy to wenden on my pilgrimage, 
To Caunterbury with ful devout corage, 
At nyght were come into that hostelrye 
Wei nyne and twenty in a compaignye 
Of sondry folk, by aventure y-falle 
In felaweshipe, and pilgrimes were they alle. 
That toward Caunterbury wolden ryde." 

{Prologue, 1. 20.) 

This famous band of wayfarers includes representatives 

of all classes, save the highest and the lowest, just at 

the period when our surnames were becoming fixed. 

It seems natural to distinguish the following groups. 

The leisured class is represented by the Knight (p. 145) 

and his son the Squire, also found as Swire or Swyer, 

Old Fr. escuyer (ecuyer), a shield-bearer (Lat. scutum), 

with their attendant Yeoman, a name that originally 

meant a small landowner and later a trusted attendant 

of the warlike kind — 

" And in his hand he baar a myghty bowe." 

(A, 108.) 

With these goes the Franklin (p. 145), who had been 
Sherriff, i.e. shire-reeve. He is also described as a 

Vavasour (p. 11) — 

" Was nowher such a worthy vavasour " (A, 360.) 

The professions are represented by the Nunn, her atten- 



dant priests, whence the names Press, Prest, the Monk, 
the Frere, or Fryer, " a wantowne and a merye," the 
Clark of Oxenforde, the Sargent of the lawe, the Sum- 
ner, i.e. summoner or apparitor, the doctor of physic, 
i.e. the Leech or Leach — 

" Make war breed peace ; make peace stint war ; make each 
Prescribe to other, as each other's leech " 1 

(Timon of Athens, v. 4) — 

and the poor parson. Le surgien and le fisicien were 
once common surnames, but the former has been 
swallowed up by Sargent, and the latter seems to have 
died out. The name Leach has been reinforced by the 
dialect lache, a bog, whence also the compounds Black- 
leach, Depledge. Loosely attached to the church is the 
pardoner, with his wallet — 

" Bret-ful of pardon, comen from Rome al hoot." 

(A, 687.) 

But he has not left us a surname, for the fairly common 
Pardon, of French origin, is a dim. of Pardolf. 

Commerce is represented by the Marchant, depicted 
as a character of weight and dignity, and the humbler 
trades and crafts by — 

"An haberdasher, and a Carpenter, 
A Webbe, a deyer (Dyer), and a tapiser." 

(A, 361.) 

To these may be added the Wife of Bath, whose com- 
fortable means were drawn from the cloth trade, then 
our staple industry. 

From rural surroundings come the Miller and the 
Plowman, as kindly a man as the poor parson his 
brother, for — 

1 The same word as the worm leech, from an Anglo-Saxon word 
for healer. 


" He wolde threshe, and therto dyke and delve, 
For Cristes sake, for every poure wight, 
Withouten hire, if it lay in his myght." 

(A, 536.) 

The Miller is the same as the Meller or Mellor — 

"Upon the whiche brook ther stant a. melle 1 ; 
And this is verray sooth, that I yow tell." 

(A, 3923.) 

The oldest form of the name is Milner, Anglo-Sax. 
myln, Lat. molina ; cf. Kilner from kiln, Lat. culina, 

The official or servile class includes the manciple, 
or buyer for a fraternity of templars, otherwise called 
an achatour, whence Cator, Chaytor, Chater a (p. 33), 
the Reeve, an estate steward, so crafty that — 

"Ther nas baillif (p. 45), ne herde (p. 32), nor oother hyne (p. 35), 
That he ne knew his sleighte and his covyne " 

(A, 603) ; 

and finally the Cook, or Coke (p. 12) — 

" To boylle the chicknes and the marybones." 

(A, 380.) 

In a class by himself stands the grimmest figure of 
all, the Shipman, of whom we are told — 

" If that he f aught, and hadde the hyer hond, 
By water he sente hem hoom to every lond." 

(A, 399-) 

The same occupation has given the name Marner, 
for mariner, and Seaman, but the medieval forms of 
the rare name Saylor show that it is from Fr. sailleur, 

1 A Kentish form, used by Chaucer for the rime ; cf. pet for 
pit (p. 127). 

2 These may be also from escheatour, an official who has given 
us the word cheat. 


a dancer, an artist who also survives as Hopper and 
Leaper — 

" To one that leped at Chestre, 6s. Sd." 

(Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VII, 1 1495.) 

The pilgrims were accompanied by the host of the 
Tabard Inn, whose occupation has given us the names 
Inman and Hostler, Oastter, Old Fr. hosteller (hotelier), 
now applied to the inn servant who looks after the 
'osses. Another form is the modern-looking Hustler. 
Distinct from these is Osier, Fr. oiseleur, a bird-catcher ; 
cf. Burder and Fowler. 

If we deal here with ecclesiastical names, as being 
really nicknames (p. 147), that will leave the trader 
and craftsman, the peasant, and the official or servile 
class to be treated in separate chapters. Social, as 
distinguished from occupative, surnames have already 
been touched on, and the names, not very numerous, 
connected with warfare have also been mentioned in 
various connections. 

Among ecclesiastical names Monk has the largest 
number of variants. Its Anglo-French form is some- 
times represented by Munn and Moon, while Money 
is the oldest Fr. monie ; cf. Vicary from Old Fr. vicarie. 
But the French names La Monnaie, de la Monnaie, are 
local, from residence near the mint. The canon ap- 
pears as Cannon, Channen, and Shannon, Fr. chanoine — 

" With this chanoun I dwelt have seven yere " 

(G, 720); 

but Dean is generally local (p. 112) and Deacon is often 
an imitative form of Dakin or Deakin, from David 

1 He was usually more generous to the high arts, e.g. " To a. 
Spaynarde that pleyed the fole, £2," " To the young damoysell 
that daunceth, ^30." With which cf. " To Carter for writing of a 
boke, js. 4d." 


(p. 57). Charter was used of a monk of the Charter- 
house, a popular corruption of Chartreuse — 

" With a company dyde I mete, 
As ermytes, monkes, and freres, 
Chanons, chartores . . ." 

(Cock Lorelles Bote.) 

Charter also comes from archaic Fr. chartier (char- 
retier), a carter, and perhaps sometimes from Old 
Fr. chartrier, " a jaylor ; also, a prisoner ' " (Cotg.), 
which belongs to Lat. career, prison. Charters may 
be from the French town Chartres, but is more 
likely a perversion of Charterhouse, as Childers is of 
the obsolete childer-house, orphanage. 

Among lower orders of the church we have Lister* 
a reader, Bennet, an exorcist, and Collet, aphetic for 
acolyte. But each of these is susceptible of another 
origin which is generally to be preferred. Chaflin 
is of course for chaplain, Fr. chafelain. The legate 
appears as Leggatt. Crosier or Crozier means cross- 
bearer. At the funeral of Anne of Cleves (1557) the 
mass was executed — 

" By thabbott in pontificalibus wthis croysyer, deacon and 

The name may sometimes have arisen through the 
crosier, or bishop's staff, being used as a shop-sign 
(p. 135). Canter, Caunter is for chanter, and has an 
apparent dim. Cantrell, but this name may be from 
Old Fr. chanterel, chant-book, and have been acquired 
in the same way as Porteous (p. 136). Sanger and Sang- 
ster were not ecclesiastical Singers. Converse meant 
a lay-brother employed as a drudge in a monastery. 
Sacristan, the man in charge of the sacristy, from which 

1 The sense development of these two words is curious. 

2 Found in Late Latin as legista, from Lat. legere, to read. 


we have Secretan, is contracted into Saxton and Sexton, 
a name now usually associated with grave-digging and 
bell-ringing, though the latter task once belonged to 
the Knowler — 

" Carilloneur, a chymer, or knowler of bells " (Cotgrave). 

It is of course connected with knell, though the only 
Kneller who has become famous was a German named 

Marillier, probably a Huguenot name, is an Old Fr. 
form of marguillier, a churchwarden, Lat. matricu- 
larius. The hermit seems to have survived only in 
the Huguenot Lermitte (I'hermite), though the name 
of his dwelling is common (p. 130) ; but Anker, now 
anchorite, is still found. Fals-Semblant says — 

" Somtyme I am religious, 
Now lyk ail anker in an hous." 

(Romaunt of the Rose, 6348.) 

While a Pilgrim acquired his name by a journey to 
any shrine, a Palmer must originally have been to the 
Holy Land, and a Romer to Rome. But the frequent 
occurrence of Palmer suggests that it was often a 
nickname for a pious fraud. We have a doublet of 
Pilgrim in Pegram, though this may come from the 
name Peregrine, the etymology being the same, viz. 
Lat. peregrinus, a foreigner. 



"What d'ye lack, noble sir? — What d'ye lack, beauteous 
madam ? " (Fortunes of Nigel, ch. i.) 

In the Middle Ages there was no great class of retail 
dealers distinct from the craftsmen who fashioned 
objects. The same man made and sold in almost every 
case. There were of course general dealers, such as 
the French Marchant or his English equivalent the 
Chapman (p. 23), the Dutch form of which has given 
us the Norfolk name Copeman. The Broker is now 
generally absorbed by the local Brooker. There were 
also the itinerant merchants/ of whom more anon; 
but in the great majority of cases the craftsman 
made and sold one article, and was, in fact, strictly 
forbidden to wander outside his special line. 
Fuller tells us that — 

" England were but a fling, 
Save for the crooked stick and the gray-goose-wing," 

and the importance of the bow and arrow is shown by 
the number of surnames connected with their manu- 
facture. We find the Bowyer, 1 Bower or Bowmaker, 
who trimmed and shaped the wand of yew, the Fletcher 

1 This is also one source of Boyer, but the very common French 
surname Boyer means ox-herd. 



(p. 150), Arrowsmith, or Flower, who prepared the 
arrow — 

"His bo we he bente and sette therinne a flo 1 " (H, 264) — 

and the Tipper, Stringer, and Horner, who attended 
to smaller details, though the Tipper and Stringer 
probably tipped and strung other things, and the Horner, 
though he made the horn nocks of the long-bow, also 
made horn cups and other objects. The extent to 
which specialization was carried is shown by the trade 
description of John Darke, longbow stringemaker, who 
died in 1600. The Arblaster may have either made 
or used the arblast or cross-bow, medieval Lat. arcur- 
balista, bow-sling. His name has given the imitative 
Alabaster. We also find the shortened Ballister and 
Balestier, from which we have Bannister (p. 36). Or, 
to take an example from comestibles, a Flanner 
limited his activity to the making of flat cakes 
called flans or flawns, from Old Fr. flaon {flan), a word 
of Germanic origin, ultimately related to flat — 

" He that is hanged in May will eat no flaunes in Midsummer." 

(The Abbot, ch. xxxiii.) 

Some names have become strangely restricted in 
meaning, e.g. Mercer, now almost limited to silk, was 
a name for a dealer in any kind of merchandise (Lat. 
merx) ; in Old French it meant pedlar — 

" Merrier, a. good pedler, or meane haberdasher of small 
wares " (Cotgrave). 

On the other hand Chandler, properly a candle-maker, 
is now used in the compounds corn-chandler and 
ship's chandler. Of all the -mongers the only common 

1 The true English word for arrow, Anglo-Sax. fla. 


survival is Ironmonger or Iremonger, with the variant 
Isemonger, from Mid. Eng. isen, iron. 

The wool trade occupied a very large number of 
workers and has given a good many surnames, includ- 
ing Laner, Fr. laine, wool. The Shearer was distinct 
from the Shearman or Sherman, the former operating 
on the sheep and the latter on the nap of the cloth. 
For Comber we also have the older Kempster, and pro- 
bably Kimber, from the Mid. Eng. kemben, to comb, 
which survives in " unkempt." The Walker, Fuller, and 
Tucker all did very much the same work of trampling 
the cloth. All three words are used in Wyclif 's Bible 
in variant renderings of Mark ix. 3. Fuller is from 
Fr. fouler, to trample, and Tucker from toquer, to 
strike, related to " touch." Fuller is found in the south 
and south-east, Tucker in the west, and Walker in the 
north. A Dyer was also called Dyter, Dyster, and the 
same trade is the origin of the Latin-looking Dexter 
(p. 18). From Mid. Eng. Ulster, a dyer, a word of 
Scandinavian origin, comes Lister, as in Lister Gate, 
Nottingham. With these goes the W adman, who dealt 
in, or grew, the dye-plant called woad ; cf. Flaxman. 
A beater of flax was called Swingler — 

" Fleyl, swyngyl, verga, tribulum " (Prompt. Paru.). 

A Tozer teased the cloth with a teasel. In Mid. English 
the verb is tcesen or tosen, so that the names Teaser and 
Towser, sometimes given to bull-terriers, are doublets. 
Seeker means sack-maker. 

We have already noticed the predominance of 
Taylor. This is the more remarkable when we con- 
sider that the name has as rivals the native Seamer 
and Shapster and the imported Parmenter, Old Fr. 
parmentier, a maker of parements, now used chiefly 



of facings on clothes. But another, and more usual, 
origin of Parmenter, Parminter, Parmiter, is parch- 
menter, a very important medieval trade. The word 
would correspond to a Lat. pergamentarius, which has 
given also the German surname Berminter. Several old 
German cities had a Permentergasse, i.e. parchment- 
makers' street. A Pitcher made pilches, i.e. fur cloaks, 
an early loan-word from Vulgar Lat. pellicia {pellis, 
skin). Chaucer's version of — 

" Till May is out, ne'er cast a clout " 
is — 

" After greet heet cometh colde ; 
No man caste his pilche away." 

Another name connected with clothes is Chaucer, Old 
Fr. chaussier, a hosier (Lat. calceus, boot), while Admiral 
Hozier's Ghost reminds us of the native word. The 
oldest meaning of hose seems to have been gaiters. It 
ascended in Tudor times to the dignity of breeches 
(cf. trunk-hose), the meaning it has in modern German. 
Now it has become a tradesman's euphemism for the 
improper word stocking, a fact which led a friend of 
the writer's, imperfectly acquainted with German, to 
ask a gifted lady of that nationality if she were a 
Blauhose. A Quitter quilled, i.e. gophered, ruffs. 
A Chaloner or Chawner dealt in shalloon, Mid. Eng. 
chalons, a material made at Chalons-sur-Marne — 

" And in his owene chambre hem made a bed. 
With sheetes and with chalons faire y-spred." 

(A, 4I39-) 

Ganter or Gaunter is Fr. gantier, glove-maker. 

Some metal-workers have already been mentioned 
in connection with Smith (p. 44), and elsewhere. The 
French Fevre is found as Feaver. Fearon comes from 
Old Fr. feron, smith, from ferir, to smite. Face le 


ferrun, i.e. Boniface (p. 34) the smith, lived in North- 
ampton in the twelfth century. This is an example of 
the French use of -on as an agential suffix. Another 
example is Old Fr. charton, or charreton, a waggoner, 
from the Norman form of which we have Carton. In 
Scriven, from Old Fr. escrivain (ecrivain), we have an 
isolated agential suffix. The English form is usually 
lengthened to Scrivener. In Ferrier, for farrier, the 
traditional spelling has prevailed over the pronuncia- 
tion, but we have the latter in Farrar. These names 
(Lat. ferrum, iron) are not related to Fearon (Lat. ferire, 
to strike). Aguilar means needle-maker, Fr. aiguille, 
but Pinner is more often official (p. 181). Cutler, Fr. 
coutelier, Old Fr. coutel, knife, and Spooner go together, 
but the fork is a modern fad. Poynter is another good 
example of the specialization of medieval crafts : 
the points were the metal tags by which the doublet 
and hose were connected. Hence the play on words 
when Falstaff is recounting his adventure with the 
men in buckram— 

Fal. " Their points being broken " 

Poins. " Down fell their hose." 

(1 Henry IV., ii, 4.) 

Latimer, Latner sometimes means a worker in latten, 
a mixed metal of which the etymological origin is un- 
known. The Pardoner — 

" Hadde a croys of latoun ful of stones " (A, 699). 

For the change from -n to -m we may compare Lorimer 
for Loriner, a bridle-maker, belonging ultimately to 
Lat. lorum, " the reyne of a brydle " (Cooper). But 
Latimer comes also from Latiner, a man skilled in Latin, 
hence an interpreter. Sir John Mandeville tells us 
that, on the way to Sinai — 

" Men alleweys fynden Latyneres to go with hem in the contrees." 


The immortal Bowdler is usually said to take his 
name from the art of puddling, or huddling, iron ore. 
But, as this process is comparatively modern, it is more 
likely that the name comes from the same verb in its 
older meaning of making impervious to water by means 
of clay.' Monier and Minter are both connected with 
coining, the former through French and the latter from 
Anglo-Saxon, both going back to Lat. moneta, 1 mint. 
Conner, i.e. coiner, is now generally swallowed up by 
the Irish Connor. Leadbitter is for Leadbeater. The 
name Hamper is a contraction of hanapier, a maker of 
hanaps, i.e. goblets. Fr. hanap is from Old High Ger. 
hnapf {Napf), and shows the inability of French to 
pronounce initial hn- without inserting a vowel : cf . 
harangue from Old High Ger. hring. There is also a 
Mid; Eng. nap, cup, representing the cognate Anglo- 
Sax, hncep, so that the name Napper may sometimes 
be a doublet of Hamper, though it is more probably 
for Napier (p. 6) or Knapper (p. 107). The common 
noun hamper is from hanapier in a sense something like 
plate-basket. With metal-workers we may also put 
Poyser, scale-maker (poise), and Furber or Frobisher, 
i.e. furbisher of armour, etc. Two occupative names 
of Celtic origin are Gow, a smith, as in The Fair Maid 
of Perth, and Caird, a tinker — 

" The fellow had been originally a tinker or caird." 

(Heart of Midlothian, ch. xlix.) 

A few more names, which fall into no particular 
category, may conclude the chapter. Hillyer or 
Hellier is an old name for a Thacker, or thatcher, of 
which we have the Dutch form in Dekker. It comes 
from Mid. Eng. helen, to cover up. In Hittard, Hill- 

1 On the curiously accidental history of this word see the Ro- 
mance of Words, ch. x. 


yard we sometimes have the same name (cf . the vulgar 
scholar d), but these are usually local (p. 124). Hellier 
also meant tiler, for the famous Wat is described 
as tiler, tegheler, and hellier. An Ashbumer prepared 
wood-ash for the Bloomer (p. 153), and perhaps also for 
the Glaisher, or glass-maker, and Asher is best explained 
in the same way, for we do not, I think, add -er 
to tree-names. Apparent exceptions can be easily 
accounted for, e.g. Elmer is Anglo-Sax. iElfmaer, and 
Beecher is Anglo-Fr. bechur, digger (Fr. beche, spade). 
Neither Pitman nor Collier have their modern meaning 
of coal-miner. Pitman is local, of the same class as 
Bridgeman, Pullman, etc., and Collier meant a charcoal- 
burner, as in the famous ballad of Rauf Colyear. Not 
much coal was dug in the Middle Ages. Even in 1610 
Camden speaks with disapproval, in his Britannia, of 
the inhabitants of Sherwood Forest who, with plenty 
of wood around them, persist in digging up " stinking 

Croker is for Crocker, a maker of crocks or pitchers. 
The Miller's guests only retired to bed — 

" Whan that dronken al was in the crowke " (A, 4158). 

The spelling has affected the pronunciation, as in 
Sloper and Smoker (p. 41). A Benner made hampers, 
Fr. benne. Tinker is sometimes found as the fre- 
quentative Tinkler, the man whose approach is 
heralded by the clatter of metal utensils — 

"My bonny lass, I work on brass, 
A tinkler is my station." 

(Burns, Jolly Beggars, Air 6.) 

The maker of saddle-trees was called Fewster, from 
Old Fr. fust (Jut), Lat. fustis. This has sometimes 


given Foster, but the latter is more often for Forster, 
i.e. Forester — 

"An horn lie bar, the bawdryk was of grene, 
A forster was he soothly as I gesse." 

(A, 116.) 

The saddler himself was often called by his French 
name sellier, whence Sellar, but both this and Sellars 
are also local, at the cellars (p. 29). Pargeter means 
dauber, plasterer, from Old Fr. parjeter, to throw over. 
A Straker made the strakes, or tires, of wheels. A 
Stanger made stangs, i.e. poles, shafts, etc. 

Finally the fine arts are represented by Limmer, 
for limner, a painter, an aphetic form of illuminer, and 
Tickner, a Dutch name, from tekener, draughtsman, 
cognate with Eng. token, while the art of self-defence 
has given us the name Scrimgeoure, with a number of 
corruptions, including the local-looking Skrimshire. 
It is related to scrimmage and skirmish, and ulti- 
mately to Gr. schirmen, to fence, lit. to protect. The 
name was applied to a professional sword-player — 

" Qe nul teigne escole de eskermerye ne de bokeler deins la citee." 

(Liber Albus.) 

A particularly idiotic form of snobbishness has 
sometimes led people to advance strange theories as 
to the origin of their names. Thus Turner has been 
explained as from la tour noire. Dr. Brewer, in his 
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 1 apparently desirous of 
dissociating himself from malt liquor, observes that — 

" Very few ancient names are the names of trades. ... A few 
examples of a more scientific derivation will suffice for a hint : — 

Brewer. This name, which exists in France as Bruhiere and 
Brugere, is not derived from the Saxon briwan (to brew), but the 
French bruyire (heath), and is about tantamount to the German 

1 Thirteenth edition, revised and corrected. 


Plantagenet (broom plant). Miller is the old Norse melia, our mill 
and maul, and means a mauler or fighter. 

Ringer is the Anglo-Saxon hring-gar (the mailed warrior). 

Tanner, German Thanger, Old German Dane-gaud, is the Dane- 

This list might easily be extended." 

There is of course no reason why such a list should 
not be indefinitely extended, but it is already quite 
long enough to make the reader feel dizzy. The fact is 
that there is no getting away from a surname of this 
class, and the bearer must try to look on the 
brighter side of the tragedy. Brewer is occasionally 
an accommodated form of the French name Bruyere or 
Labruyere, but is usually derived from an occupation 
which is the high-road to the House of Lords. The 
ancestor of any modern Barber may, like Salvation 
Yeo's father, have " exercised the mystery of a barber- 
surgeon," which is getting near the learned professions, 
A Pottinger (see p. 155) looked after the soups, Fr. 
fotage, as a Saucer did after the sauces, but the name 
also represents Pothecary (apothecary), which gave in 
early Scottish the aphetic forms foticar, fotigar — 

n 1 

1 Pardon me,' said he, ' I am but a poor pottingar. Neverthe- 
less, I have been bred in Paris and learnt my humanities and my 
cursus medendi'" (Fair Maid of Perth, ch. vii.). 



" Jacque, il me faut troubler ton somme ; 
Dans le village, un gros huissier 
Rode et court, suivi du messier. 
C'est pour l'impot, las! mon pauvre homme. 
Leve-toi, Jacque, leve-toi : 
Voici venir l'huissier du roi." 


General terms for what we now usually call a farmer 
are preserved in the surnames Bond (p. 146), whence the 
compound Husband, used both for the goodman of 
the house and in the modern sense, and Tillman. 
The labouring man was Day, from the same root as 
Ger. dienen, to serve. It persists in ' ' dairy ' ' and in the 
compound Faraday, a travelling, or wayfaring, labourer. 
A similar meaning is contained in the names Swain, 
Hind, for earlier Hine (p. 35), Tasker, Wager, and 
Man. The mower has given us the names Mather (cf. 
aftermath), and Mawer, the latter usually swallowed 
up by Moore, while Fenner is sometimes for Old 
Fr. feneur, haymaker (Lat. fcenum, hay). For mower 
we also find the latinized messor, whence Messer. 
Whether the Ridler l and the Sivier made, or used, 
riddles and sieves can hardly be decided. With the 

1 Riddle is the usual word for sieve in the Midlands. Hence the 
phrase " riddled with holes, or wounds." 

13 '77 


Wenman, who drove the wain, we may mention the 
Leader or Loader. The verbs to lead and to load are 
etymologically the same, and in the Midlands people 
talk of leading, i.e. carting, coal. But these names 
could also come from residence near an artificial water- 
course (p. 129). Beecher has already been explained 
(p. 174), and Showier is formed in the same way from 
dialect showl, a shovel — 

" ' I,' said the owl, 
' With my spade and showl.' " 

To the variants of the Miller (p. 225) may be added 
Mulliner, from Old French. Tedder means a man who 
teds, i.e. spreads, hay, the origin of the word being 
S candinavian — 

" I teede hey, I tourne it afore it is made in cockes, je fene." 

(Palsgrave. ) 

But the greater number of surnames drawn from 
rural occupations are connected with the care of 
animals. We find names of this class in three forms, 
exemplified by Coltman, Goater, Shepherd, and it seems 
likely that the endings -er and -erd have sometimes 
been interchanged, e.g. that Goater may stand for 
goat-herd, Calver for calf-herd, and Nutter for northern 
nowt-herd, representing the otherwise absent neat- 
herd. The compounds of herd include Bullard, Cal- 
vert, Coltard, Coward, for cow-herd, not of course 
to be confused with the common noun coward, Fr. 
couard, a derivative of Lat. cauda, tail, Ewart, ewe- 
herd, but also a Norman spelling of Edward, Geldard, 
Goddard, sometimes for goat-herd, Hoggart, often con- 
fused with the local Hogarth (p. 124), Seward, for sow- 
herd, or for the historic Siward, Stobart, dialect stob, a 


bull, Stodart, Mid. Eng. stot, meaning both a bullock 
and a nag. Chaucer tells us that — 

" This reve sat upon a ful good stot " (A, 615). 

Stoddart is naturally confused with Studdart, stud- 
herd, stud being cognate with Ger. Stute, mare. We 
also have Swinnert, and lastly Weatherhead, sometimes 
a perversion of wether-herd, though usually a 
nickname, sheep's head. The man in charge of the 
tups, or rams, was called Tupman or Tapper, the 
latter standing sometimes for tup-herd, just as we 
have the imitative Stutter for Stodart or Studdart. 
We have also Tripper from trip, a dialect word for 
flock, probably related to troop. Another general 
term for a herdsman was Looker, whence Luker. 

I have headed this chapter " Hodge and his Friends," 
but as a matter of strict truth he had none, except the 
" poure Persone," the most radiant figure in Chaucer's 
pageant. But his enemies were innumerable. Be- 
ranger's lines impress one less than the uncouth 
"Song of the Husbandman" (temp. Edward I.), 
in which we find the woes of poor Hodge incorporated 
in the persons of the hayward, the bailif, the wodeward, 
the budel and his cachereles (catchpoles) — 

" For ever the furthe peni mot (must) to the kynge." 

The bailiff has already been mentioned (p. 45). The 
budel, or beadle, has given us several surnames. We 
have the word in two forms, from Anglo-Sax. bytel, 
belonging to the verb to bid, whence the names Biddle 
and Buddie, and from Old Fr. bedel (bedeau), whence 
Beadle and its variants. The animal is probably 
extinct under his original name, but modern democracy 
is doing its best to provide him with an army of 


successors. We find le cacherel strangely perverted into 
le cathercl, whence Catherall, Cattrall. 

Names in -ward are rather numerous, and, as they 
mostly come from the titles of rural officials and are 
often confused with compounds of -herd, they are 
all put together here. The simple Ward, cognate 
with Fr. garde, is one of our commonest surnames. 
Like its derivative Warden it had a very wide 
range of meanings. The antiquity of the office of 
church-warden is shown by the existence of the sur- 
name Churchward. Sometimes the surname comes 
from the abstract or local sense, de la warde. As 
the original -weard occurs very frequently in Anglo- 
Saxon personal names, it is not always possible to say 
whether a surname is essentially occupative or not, 
e.g. whether Durward'is rather door-ward or for Anglo- 
Sax. Deorweard. It is certain that Howard is both 
for Harward (Hereward), later Haward, and for the 
official Hayward, the latter source accounting for most 
of the Howards outside the ducal family. 

'Owing to the loss of w- in the second part of a word 
(see p. 39), -ward and -herd often fall together, e.g. 
Millard for Milward, and Woodard found in Mid. Eng. 
as both wode-ward and wode-hird. Hayward belongs to 
hay, hedge, enclosure (p. 124), from which we also get 
Hayman. The same functionary has given the name 
Haybittle, a compound of beadle. Burward and Burrard 
no doubt represent the once familiar office of bear-ward; 
cf. Berman. I had a schoolfellow called Lateward, 
apparently the man in charge of the lade or leet (p. 129). 
Medward is for mead-ward. The name Stewart or 
Stuart became royal with Walter the Steward of Scot- 
land, who married Marjorie Bruce in 1315. It stands 
for sty-ward, where sty means pen, not necessarily 


limited to pigs. Like most official titles, it has had its 
ups and downs, with the result that its present meaning 
ranges from a high officer of the crown to the sympa- 
thetic concomitant of a rough crossing. 

The Reeve, Anglo-Sax. ge-refa, was in Chaucer a kind 
of land agent, but the name was also applied to local 
officials, as in port-reeve, shire-reeve. It is the same 
as Grieve, also originally official, but used in Scotland 
of a land steward — 

" He has got a ploughman from Scotland who acts as grieve." 

(Scott, Diary, 1814.) 

This is one source of the names Graves and Greaves. 
The name Woodruff or Woodroffe is too common to 
be referred to the plant woodruff, and the fact that the 
male and female of a species of sand-piper are called 
the ruff and reeve suggests that Woodrw^ may have 
some relation to -wood-reeve. It is at any rate a curious 
coincidence that the German name for the plant is 
Waldmeister, wood-master. Another official surname 
especially connected with country life is Finder, also 
found as Pinner, Pender, Penner, Ponder and Poynder, 
the man in charge of the pound or pinfold ; cf. Parker, 
the custodian of a park, of which the Palliser or 
Pallister made the palings. 

The itinerant dealer was usually called by a name 
suggesting the pack which he carried. Thus Badger, 
Kidder, Kiddier, Pedder, now pedlar, are from bag, kid, 
related to kit, and the obsolete fed, basket ; cf . Leaper, 
p. 152. The badger, who dealt especially in corn, was 
unpopular with the rural population, and it is possible 
that his name was given to the stealthy animal formerly 
called the bawson (p. 8, n.), brock or gray (p. 225). 
To these may be added Cremer, Cramer, a huckster 


with a stall in the market, but this surname is some- 
times of modern introduction, from its German cognate 
Kramer, now generally used for a grocer. Packman, 
Pakeman, and Paxman belong more probably to the 
font-name Pack (p. 89), which also appears in Paxon, 
Pack's son, and the local Paxton. 

The name Hawker does not belong to this group. 
Nowadays a hawker is a pedlar, and it has been 
assumed, without sufficient evidence, that the word 
is of the same origin as huckster. The Mid. Eng. le 
haueker or hanker e (1273) is quite plainly connected 
with hawk, and the name may have been applied 
either to a Falconer, Faulkner, or to a dealer in 
hawks. As we know that itinerant vendors of hawks 
travelled from castle to castle, it is quite possible 
that our modern hawker is an extended use of the 
same name. Nor is the name Coster to be referred to 
costermonger, originally a dealer in costards, i.e. apples. 
It is sometimes for Mid. Eng. costard (cf. such names as 
Cherry and Plumb), but also represents Port, da Costa 
and Ger. Kbster, both of which are found in early lists 
of Protestant refugees. 

J agger, whence Jaggard, was a north-country name 
for a man who worked draught-horses for hire. Mr. 
Hardy's novel Under the Greenwood Tree opens with 
" the Tranter's party." A carrier is still a tranter in 
Wessex. In Medieval Latin he was called travetarius, 
a word apparently connected with Lat. transvehere, to 



" Big fleas have little fleas 
Upon their backs to bite 'em ; 
Little fleas have smaller fleas, 
And so ad infinitum." 


It is a well-known fact that official nomenclature 
largely reflects the simple housekeeping of early times, 
and that many titles, now of great dignity, were origin- 
ally associated with rather lowly duties. We have 
seen an example in Stewart. Another is Chamberlain. 
Hence surnames drawn from this class are susceptible 
of very varied interpretation. A Chancellor was origin- 
ally a man in charge of a chancel, or grating, Lat. 
cancelli. In Mid. Eng. it is usually glossed scriba, 
while it is now limited to very high judicial or political 
office. Bailey, as we have seen (p. 45), has also a wide 
range of meanings, the ground idea being that of 
care-taker. Cotgrave explains Old Fr. mareschal 
(marechal) as — 

" A Marshall of a kingdome, or of a camp (an honourable place) ; 
also, a blacksmith ; also, a, farrier, horse-leech, or horse-smith ; 
also, a harbinger," 1 

which gives a considerable choice of origins to any 
modern Marshall or Maskell. Another very vague term 
is sergeant, whence our Sargent. Its oldest meaning is 

1 I.e. a quartermaster. See Romance of Words, ch. vii. 


servant, Lat. semiem, servient-. Cotgrave defines 

sergent as — 

" A sergeant, officer, catchpole, pursuyvant, apparitor ; also (in 
Old Fr.) a footman, or souldier that serves on foot." 

Probably catchpole was the commonest meaning — 
" Sargeauntes , katche pollys, and somners " (Cocke Lorelles Bote). 

The administration of justice occupied a horde of 
officials, from the Justice down to the Catchpole. 
The official title Judge is rarely found, and this surname 
is usually from the female name Judge, which, like 
Jug, was used for Judith, and later for Jane — 

" Jannette, Judge, Jennie ; a woman's name " (Cotgrave). 

The names Judson and Juxon sometimes belong to 
these. Catchpole has nothing to do with poles or 
polls. It is a Picard cache-poule (chasse-poule), col- 
lector of poultry in default of money. Another name 
for judge was Dempster, the pronouncer of doom, a 
title which still exists in the Isle of Man. We also find 
Deemer — 

" Demar, judicator" (Prompt. Parv.). 

Mayor is a learned spelling of Mair, Fr. maire, Lat. 
major, but Major, which looks like its latinized form, 
is imitative for the Old French personal name Mauger. 
Bishop Mauger of Worcester pronounced the interdict 
in 1208, and the surname still exists. Gaylor, Galer, 
is the Norman pronunciation of gaoler — 

" And Palamon, this woful prisoner, 
As was his wone, bi leve of his gayler, 
Was risen" (A, 1064). 

Usher is Fr. huissier, door-keeper, Fr. huts, door, 
Lat. ostium. I conjecture that Lusher is the French 


name Lhuissier, and that Lush is local, for Old Fr. 
le huis ; cf. Laporte. Wait, corruptly Weight, now 
used only of a Christmas minstrel, was once a watch- 
man. It is a dialect form of Old Fr. gaite, cognate 
with watch. The older sense survives in the expres- 
sion " to lie in wait." Gate is the same name, when 
not local (p. 124). The Todhunter, or fox-hunter 
(p. 225), was a parish official whose duty was to ex- 
terminate the animal now so carefully preserved. 
Warner is for Warrener. The Grosvenor (gros veneur), 
great hunter, was a royal servant. Bannerman is 
found latinized as Penninger (p. 155). Herald may be 
official or from Harold (p. 69), the derivation being 
in any case the same. Toller means a collector of tolls. 
Cocke Lorelle speaks of these officials as " false 
Towlers." Connected with administration is the name 
Mainprice, taken by hand, used both for a surety 
and a man out on bail — 

" Maynprysyd, or memprysyd, manucaptus, fideijussus" 

(Prompt. Pan.) ; 

and Shurety also exists. 

The individtial bigwig had a very large retinue, the 
members of which appear to have held very strongly 
to the theory of one man, one job. The Nurse, or 
Norris, Fr. nourrice, was apparently debarred from 
rocking the cradle. This was the duty of the rocker — 

" To the novice and rokker of the same lord, 25s. Sd." 

(Household Accounts of Elizabeth of York, March, 1503), 

from whom Mr. Roker, chief turnkey at the Fleet in 
Mr. Pickwick's time, was descended. The Cook was 
assisted by the B aster and Raster, or turnspit. This is 
from Old Fr. hastille, spit, dim. of Lat. hasta, spear. 
The Chandler was a servant as well as a manufacturer. 


A Trotter and a Massinger, i.e. messenger, were perhaps 
much the same thing. Wardroper is of course wardrobe 
keeper, but Chaucer uses wardrope (B. 1762) in the 
sense which Fr. garde-robe now usually has. The 
Lavender, Launder or Lander saw to the washing. 
Napier, from Fr. nappe, cloth, meant the servant 
who looked after the napery. The martial sound with 
which this distinguished name strikes a modern ear is 
due to historical association, assisted, as I have some- 
where read, by its riming with rapier ! The water- 
supply was in charge of the Ewer. 

The provisioning of the great house was the work of 
the Lardner, Fr. lard, bacon, the Panter, or Pantler, 
who was, at least etymologically, responsible for bread, 
and the Cator (p. 33) and Spencer (p. 33), whose names, 
though of opposite meaning, buyer and spender, come 
to very much the same thing. Spence is still the north- 
country word for pantry, and is used by Tennyson in 
the sense of refectory — 

" Bluff Harry broke into the spence 
And turn'd the cowls adrift." 

(The Talking Oak, 1. 47.) 

Purser, now used in connection with ships only, was 
also a medieval form of bursar, and every castle and 
monastery had its almoner, now Amner. Here also 
belongs Carver. In Iver Church (Bucks) is a tablet to 
Lady Mary Salter with a poetic tribute to her husband — 

" Full forty years a carver to two kings." 

As the importance of the horse led to the social eleva- 
tion of the marshal and constable (p. 45), so the 
hengstman, now henchman, became his master's right- 
hand man. The first element is Anglo-Sax. hengest, 
stallion, and its most usual surnominal forms are Hens- 


man and Hinxman. Historians now regard Hengist 
and Horsa, stallion and mare, as nicknames assumed 
by Jutish braves on the war-path. Sumpter, Old Fr. 
sommetier, from somme, burden, was used both of a 
packhorse and its driver, its interpretation in King 
Lear being a matter of dispute — 

" Return with her ? 
Persuade me rather to be slave and sumpter 
To this detested groom" (Lear, ii, 4). 

As a surname it probably means the driver, Medieval 
Lat. sumetarius. 

Among those who ministered to the great man's 
pleasures we must probably reckon Spelman, Speller, 
Spillman, Spiller, from Mid. Eng. spel, a speech, 
narrative — 

"Now holde your mouth, par charitee, 
Bothe knyght and lady free, 
And herkneth to my spelle" (B, 2081). 

The cognate Spielmann, lit. Player, was usedin Medieval 
German of a wandering minstrel. 

The poet is now Rymer or Rimmer, while Trover, 
Fr. trouvere, a poet, minstrel, lit. finder, has been 
absorbed by Troisier, for Thrower, a name connected 
with weaving. Even the jester has come down to 
us as Patch, a name given regularly to this member 
of the household in allusion to his motley attire. 
Shylock applies it to Launcelot — 

" The patch is kind enough ; but a huge feeder." 

(Merchant of Venice, ii. 5.) 

But the name has another origin (p. 89). Butter and 
Cocker are names taken from the fine old English 
sports of bull-baiting and cock-fighting. 
Two very humble members of the parasitic class 


have given the names Bidder and Maunder, both 
meaning beggar. The first comes from Mid. Eng. 
bidden, to ask. Piers Plowman speaks of " bidderes 
and beggers." Maunder is perhaps connected with 
Old Fr. quemander — 

" Quemander, or caimander , to beg ; or goe a begging ; to beg 
from doore to doore " (Cotgrave), 

but it may mean a maker of maunds, i.e. baskets. 
A Beadman spent his time in praying for his bene- 
factor. A medieval underling writing to his superior 
often signs himself " your servant and bedesman." 



" Here is Wyll Wyly the myl pecker, 
And Patrick Pevysshe heerbeter, 
With lusty Hary Hangeman, 
Nexte house to Robyn Renawaye ; 
Also Hycke Crokenec the rope maker, 
And Steven Mesyllmouthe muskyll taker." 

(Cocke Lovelies Bote. 1 ) 

Every family name is etymologically a nickname, i.e. 
an eke-name, intended to give that auxiliary informa- 
tion which helps in identification. But writers on 
surnames have generally made a special class of those 
epithets which were originally conferred on the bearer 
in connection with some characteristic feature, phy- 
sical or moral, or some adjunct, often of the most 
trifling description, with which his personality was 
associated. Of nicknames, as of other things, it may 
be said that there is nothing new under the sun. 
Ovidius Naso might have received his as a schoolboy, 
and Moss cum naso, whom we find in Suffolk in 1184, 
lives on as " Nosey Moss " in Whitechapel. Some of 
our nicknames occur as personal names in Anglo- 
Saxon times (p. 71), but as surnames they are seldom 
to be traced back to that period, for the simple reason 

1 This humorous poem, inspired by Sebastian Brandt's Narren- 
schiff, known in England in Barclay's translation, was printed 
early in the reign of Henry VIII. It contains the fullest list we have 
of old trade-names. 



that such names were not hereditary. An Anglo- 
Saxon might be named Wulf, but his son would bear 
another name, while our modern Wolfe does not usually 
go farther back than some Ranulf le wolf of the thir- 
teenth or fourteenth century. This is of course stating 
the case broadly, because the personal name Wolf 
also persisted and became in some cases a surname. 
In this and the following chapters I do not generally 
attempt to distinguish between such double origins. 

Nicknames are formed in very many ways, but the 
two largest classes are sobriquets taken from the 
names of animals, e.g. Hogg, or from adjectives, either 
alone or accompanied by a noun, e.g. Dear, Goodfellow. 
Each of these classes requires a chapter to itself, while 
here we may deal with the smaller groups. 

Some writers have attempted to explain all apparent 
nicknames as popular perversions of surnames belong- 
ing to the other three classes. As the reader will 
already have noticed, such perversions are extremely 
common, but it is a mistake to try to account for 
obvious nicknames in this way. Any of us who retain 
a vivid recollection of early days can call to mind 
nicknames of the most fantastic kind, and in some 
cases of the most apparently impossible formation, 
which stuck to their possessors all through school-life. 
A very simple test for the genuineness of a nickname 
is a comparison with other languages. Camden says 
that Drinkwater is a corruption of Derwentwater. The 
incorrectness of this guess is shown by the existence 
as surnames of Fr. Boileau, It. Bevilacqua, and Ger. 
Trinkwasser. It is in fact a perfectly natural nick- 
name for a medieval eccentric, the more normal 
attitude being represented by Roger Beyvin (boi-vin), 
who died in London in 1277. 


Corresponding to our Goodday, we find Ger. Gutentag 
and Fr. Bonjour. The latter has been explained as 
from a popular form of George, but the English and 
German names show that the explanation is unneces- 
sary. With Dry we may compare Fr. Lesec and 
Ger. Durr, with Garlick Ger. Knoblauch (p. 155), and 
with Shakespeare Ger. Schiittespeer. Luck is both for 
Luke and Luick (Liege, p. 100), but Rosa Bonheur 
and the composer Glilck certify it also as a nickname. 
Merryweather is Fr. Bontemps and Littleboy appears 
in the Paris Directory as Petitgas, gas being the same 
as gars, the old nominative of garcon — 

" Gars, a. lad, boy, stripling, youth, yonker " (Cotgrave). 

Bardsley explains Twentyman as an imitative corrup- 
tion of twinter-man, the man in charge of the twinters, 
two-year-old colts. This may be so, but there is a 
German confectioner in Hampstead called Zwanziger, 
and there are Parisians named Vingtain. Lover is 
confirmed by the French surnames Amant and La- 
moureux, and Wellbeloved by Bienaime. Allways may 
be the literal equivalent of the French name Partout. 
On the other hand, the name Praisegod Barebones has 
been wrongly fixed on an individual of French descent 
named Barbon, from bar be, beard. 

It may seem strange that the nickname, conferred 
essentially on the individual, and often of a very 
offensive character, should have persisted and bepome 
hereditary. But schoolboys know that, in the case of 
unpleasant nicknames, the more you try to pull it off, 
the more it sticks the faster. Malapert and Lehideux 
are still well represented in" the Paris Directory. Many 
objectionable nicknames have, however, disappeared, 
or have been so modified as to become inoffensive. 


Sometimes such disappearance has resulted from the 
depreciation in the meaning of a word, e.g. le lewd, the 
layman, the unlettered, was once as common as its 
opposite le learned, whence the name Lamed. But 
many uncomplimentary names are no longer objected 
to because their owners do not know their earlier 
meanings. A famous hymn-writer of the eighteenth 
century bore all unconsciously a surname that would 
almost have made Rabelais blush. Drinkdregs, 
Drunkard, Sourale, Sparewater, Sweatinbed, etc. have 
gone, but we still have Lush — 

" Falourdin, a luske, lowt, lurden, a lubberlie sloven, heavie sot, 
lumpish hoydoa " (Cotgrave) — 

and many other names which can hardly have gratified 
their original possessors. 

A very interesting group of surnames consists of 
those which indicate degrees of kinship or have to do 
with the relations existing between individuals. We 
find both Master and Mann, united in Masterman, 
meaning the man in the service of one locally known 
as the master. With this we may compare Ladyman, 
Priestman, etc. But Mann is often local, from Le Mans, 
the capital of Maine. In some cases such names are 
usually found with the patronymic -s, e.g. Masters, 
Fellows, while in others this is regularly absent, e.g. 
Guest, Friend. The latter name is sometimes a corrup- 
tion of Mid. Eng. fremed, stranger, cognate with Ger. 
fremd, so that opposite terms, which we find regularly 
contrasted in Mid. Eng. " frend and fremed," have 
become absorbed in one surname. The frequent 
occurrence of Fellows is due to its being sometimes for 
the local Fallows. From Mid. Eng. fere, a companion, 
connected with faren, to travel, we get Littlefair and 


Playfair. In Wyclif's Bible we read that Jephthah's 
daughter — 

" Whanne sche hadde go with hir felowis and pleiferis, sche 
biwept hir maydynhed in the hillis " (Judges xi. 38). 

Springett is for springald, and Arlett is Mid. Eng. 
harlot, fellow, rascal, a word which has changed its 
gender and meaning — 

" He was a. gentil harlot and a kynde, 
A betre felawe sholde men noght fynde." 

(A, 647.) 

In surnames taken from words indicating family re- 
lationship we come across some survivals of terms no 
longer used, or occurring only in rustic dialect. The 
Mid. Eng. erne, uncle, cognate with Ger. Oheim, has 
given Eames. In Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, 
the heroine addresses Pandarus as " uncle dere " and 
" uncle mine," but also uses the older word — 

" ' In good feith, em,' quod she, ' that liketh me ' "(ii. 162) ; 

and the word is used more than once by Scott — 

" Didna his erne die . . . wi' the name of the Bluidy Mackenzie ? " 

(Heart of Midlothian, ch. xii.) 

It is also one of the sources of Empson, which thus cor- 
responds to Cousins or Cozens. In Neame we have a 
prosthetic n- due to the frequent occurrence of mit, 
erne (cf. the Shakespearean nuncle, Lear, i. 4). The 
names derived from cousin have been reinforced bj 
those from Cuss, i.e. Constant or Constance (p. 95) 
Thus Cussens is from the Mid. Eng. dim. Cussin. 
Anglo-Sax. nefa, whence Mid. Eng. neve, 1 neave, ii 
cognate with, but not derived from, Lat. nepos. Thi: 

1 In all books on surnames that I have come across this is re 
ferred to Old Fr. le neve. There is no such word in Old French 
which has nom. niis, ace. neveu. 


is now replaced as a common noun by the French 
word nephew, but it survives in the surname Neave. 
It also meant in Mid. English a prodigal or parasite, 
as did also Lat. nepos — 

" Neve, neverthryfte, or wastowre " {Prompt. Pan.). 

It is likely that Nevison and Nevinson are sometimes 
derivatives of this word ; cf . Widdowson and Empson. 
Child was sometimes used in the special sense of 
youth of gentle blood, or young knight ; cf . Childe 
Harold and Childe Rowland {Lear, iii. 4) . But the more 
general meaning may be assumed in its compounds, 
of which the most interesting is Leifchild, love-child, 
but without the unhappy sense which we now give 
to the term. The corresponding Faunt (p. 146) is now 
rare. Another word, now only used in dialect or by 
affectation, is bairn, the chief source of the very 
common surname Barnes ; cf . Fairbaim and Goodbaim, 
often perverted to Fairburn, Goodbum, Goodban. Barn- 
father is about equivalent to Lat. paterfamilias, but 
Pennefather is an old nickname for a miser — 

" Caqueduc, a niggard, micher, miser, scrape-good, pinch-penny, 
penny -father ; a covetous and greedy wretch " (Cotgrave). 

The name Bastard was once considered no disgrace if 
the dishonour came from a noble source, and several 
great medieval warriors bore this sobriquet. With 
this we may compare Leman or Lemon, Mid. Eng. 
leof-man, dear man, beloved, and Paramor, Fr. par 
amour, an example of an adverbial phrase that has 
become a noun. This expression, used of lawful love 
in Old French, in the stock phrase " aimer une belle 
dame par amour," had already an evil meaning by 
Chaucer's time — 

"My fourthe housbonde was a revelour, 
This is to seyn, he hadde a paramour" (D, 453). 


With these names we may put Drewry or Drury, 
sweetheart, from the Old French abstract druerie, oi 
Germanic origin and cognate with true — 

" For certeynly no such beeste 
To be loved is not worthy, 
Or bere the name of druerie." 

(Romaunt of the Rose, 5062.) 

Suckling is a nickname applied to a helpless person ; 
cf. Littlechild and "milksop," which "still thrives in 
the United States as Mellsop " (Bardsley). The heir 
survives as Ayre and Eyre. Batchelor, the origin oi 
which is one of the etymological problems yet un- 
solved, had in Old French and Mid. English also 
the meaning of young warrior or squire. Chaucer's 
Squier is described as — 

"A lovyere and a lusty bacheler" (A, 80). 

May, maiden, whence Mildmay, is used by Chaucer 
for the Holy Virgin — 

"Now, lady bright, to whom alle woful cryen, 
Thow glorie of wommanhede, thow faire may, 
Thow haven of refut, brighte sterre of day" (B, 850). 

This is the same word as Mid. Eng. mcei, relative, cog- 
nate with maid and Gaelic Mac- (p. 66). It survives 
in the Nottingham name Watmough and perhaps in 
Hickmott — 

"Mow, housbandys sister or syster in law " {Prompt. Parv.). 

I imagine that William echemannesmai, who owed the 
Treasury a mark in 1182, was one of the sponging 

Virgoe, a latinization of Virgin, is almost certainly a 
shop-sign. Rigmaiden, explained by Lower as "a 
romping girl," is local, from a place in Westmorland 
Richard de Riggemayden was living in Lancashire ir 


1307. With this group of names we may put Gossip, 
originally a god-parent, lit. related in God, Mid. Eng. 
sib, kin. 

With names like Farebrother, Goodfettow, we may 
compare some of French origin such as Bonser (bon 
sire), Bonamy, and Bellamy — 

"Thou beel amy, thou pardoner, he sayde, 
Telle us som myrth, or japes, right anon." 

(B, 318.) 

Beldam (belle dame), originally a complimentary name 
for grandmother, or grandam, has become uncompli- 
mentary in meaning — 

First Witch. " Why, how now, Hecate ! you look angerly." 
Hecate. "Have I not reason, beldams as you are, 
Saucy and overbold ? " (Macbeth, iii. 5). 

From the corresponding Old Fr. bel-sire, beau-sire, we 
have Bewsher, Bowser, and the Picard form Belcher — 

" The great belsire, the grandsire, sire, and sonne, 
Lie here interred under this grave stone." 

(Weever, Ancient Funeral Monuments.") 

To relationships by marriage belongs sometimes the 
name Gander, corresponding to Fr. Legendre, the son-in- 
law, Lat. gener. Its normal forms are Gender, Ginder. 
Fitch, usually an animal nickname (p. 225), is occa- 
sionally for le fiz, the son, which also survives as 
Fitz. Goodson, from the personal name Good (p. 4), 
sometimes corresponds to the French surname Lefilleul, 
i.e. the godson. 

A possible derivative of the name May (p. 195) is 
Ivimey. Holly and Ivy were the names of characters 
in Christmas games, and an old rime says — 

" Holy and his mery men, they dawnsyn and they syng, 
Ivy and hur maydins, they wepen and they wryng." 

If Ivimey is from this source, the same origin must 


sometimes be allowed to Holliman (p. 6). This con- 
jecture 1 has in its favour the fact that many of our 
surnames are undoubtedly derived from characters 
assumed in dramatic performances and popular festivi- 
ties. To this class belong many surnames which have 
the form of abstract nouns, e.g. Charity, Verity, Virtue, 
Vice. Of similar origin are perhaps Bliss, Chance, 
Luck, and Goodluck ; cf. Bonaventure. Love, Luff, 
occur generally as a personal name, hence the dim. 
Lufkins, but it is sometimes a nickname. Lovell, 
Lovett, more often mean little wolf. Both Louvet and 
Louveau are common French surnames. The name 
Lovett, in the wolf sense, was often applied to a dog, 
as in the famous couplet — 

" The ratte, the catte, and Lovell, our dogge 
Rule all England under the hogge," 

for which William Collingborne was executed in 1484. 
Lowell is a variant of Lovell. 

But many apparent abstract names are due to folk- 
etymology, e.g. Marriage is local, Old Fr. marage, 
marsh, and Wedlock is imitative for the local Wedlake ; 
cf . Mortlock for Mortlake and perhaps Diplock for deep- 
lake. Creed is the Anglo-Saxon personal name Creda. 
Revel, a common French surname, is a personal 
name. Wisdom is local, from a spot in Devon, and 
Want is the Mid. Eng. wont, mole, whence Wontner, 
mole-catcher. It is difficult to see how such names as 
Warr, Battle, and Conquest came into existence. The 
former, found as de la wane, is no doubt sometimes for 
Weir (p. 129), and Battle is a dim. of Bat (p. 57). But 
de la batayle is also a common entry, and Laguerre and 
Labataille are common French surnames. 

1 Ferguson, in his Surnames as a Science. 


A nickname was often conferred in connection with 
some external object regularly associated with the 
individual. Names taken from shop-signs really be- 
long to this class. Corresponding to our Hood ' we 
have Fr. Capron {chaperon). Bur don, Fr. bourdon, 
meant a staff, especially a pilgrim's staff. Daunger 
is described as having — 

" In his honde a gret burdoun" (Romaunt of the Rose, 3401). 

But the name Burdon is also local. Bracegirdle, i.e. 
breeks-girdle, must have been the nickname of one 
who wore a gorgeous belt. The Sussex name Quaife 
represents the Norman pronunciation of coif. More 
usually an adjective enters into such combinations. 
With the historic Curthose, Longsword, Strongbow 
we may compare Shorthouse, a perversion of short-hose, 
Longstaff, Horlock (hoar), Silverlock, Whitlock, etc. With 
Lovelock I should put Crockett, Old Fr. crochet, a curled 
lock, and perhaps Lovibond, found earlier as love-band. 
But the pretty name Lovelace is a corruption of the de- 
pressing Loveless ; cf . Lawless and probably Bindloss. 
Woollard may be the Anglo-Saxon personal name 
Wulfheard, but is more probably from woolward, i.e. 
without linen, a costume assumed as a sign of peni- 
tence — 

" Wolwarde, without any lynnen nexte ones body, sans chemyse." 


The three names Medley, Medlicott, and Motley go 
together, though all three of them may be local (the 
mid-lea, the middle-cot, and the moat-lea). Medley, 
mixed, is the Anglo-French past participle of Old Fr. 

1 Hood has another origin (p. 3), but the garment is made into 
a personal name in Little Red Ridinghood, who is called in French 
le petit Chaperon Rouge. 


metier {meler). Motley is of unknown origin, but it 
was not necessarily a fool's dress — 

"A marchant was ther with a forked berd, 
In mottelye, and hye on horse he sat. 
Upon his heed a Flaundryssh bevere hat" (A, 270). 

So also the Serjeant of the Law was distinguished 
by his, for the period, plain dress — 

" He rood but hoomly in a medlee cote " (A, 328). 

Gildersleeve is now rare in England, though it still 
flourishes in the United States. 1 

Names like Beard, Chinn, Tooth were conferred 
because of some prominent feature. In Anglo-French 

1 We have several instances of this phenomenon. A familiar 
example is Lippincott, the original form of which was Luffincott 
(Devonshire). But Bardsley's inclusion of American statistics is 
often misleading. It is a well-known fact that the foreign names of 
immigrants are regularly assimilated to English forms in the United 
States. In some cases, such as Cook for Koch, Cope (p. 107) for 
Kopf, Stout (p. 209) for Stolz or Stultz, the change is etymologically 
justified. But in other cases, such as Tallman for Thalmann, dale- 
man, Trout for Traut, faithful, the resemblance is accidental. Beam 
and Chestnut, common in the States but very rare in England, re- 
present an imitative form of Bohm or Behm, Bohemian, and a 
translation of Kestenbaum, chestnut tree, both Jewish names. The 
Becks and Bowmans of New York outnumber those of London by 
about five to one, the first being for Beck, baker (p. 149), and the 
second for Baumann, equivalent to Bauer, farmer. Bardsley ex- 
plains the common American name Arrison by the fact that there 
are Cockneys in America. It comes of course from Arend, a Dutch 
name related to Arnold. 

" A remarkable record in changes of surname was cited some years 
ago by an American correspondent of Notes and Queries. ' The 
changes which befell a resident of New Orleans were that when he 
moved from an American quarter to a German neighbourhood his 
name of Flint became Feuerstein, which for convenience was short- 
ened to Stein. Upon his removal to a French district he was re- 
christened Pierre. Hence upon his return to an English neighbour- 
hood he was translated into Peters, and his first neighbours were 
surprised and puzzled to find Flint turned Peters.' " 

(Daily Chronicle, April 4, 191 3.) 


we find gernon, moustache, now corrupted to Gam- 
ham, and also al gernon, with the moustache, which 
has become Algernon. But we have already seen 
(p. 125) that some names which appear to belong 
to this class are of local origin. So also Tongue 
is derived from one of several places named Tong 
or Tonge, though the ultimate origin is perhaps 
in some cases the same, a "tongue" of land. 
Quartermain is for quatre-mains, perhaps bestowed 
on a very acquisitive person ; Joscius quatre-buches, 
four mouths, and Roger tunekes, two necks, were alive 
in the twelfth century ; and there is record of a Saracen 
champion named quinze-paumes, though this is perhaps 
rather a measure of height. Cheek I conjecture to 
be for Chick. The odd-looking Kidney is for the local 
Gidney-. There is a rare name Poindexter, appearing 
in French as Poingdestre, " right fist." * I have seen it 
explained as from the heraldic term point dexter, but 
it is rather to be taken literally. I find Johannes 
cum pugno in 11 84, and we can imagine that such a 
name may have been conferred on a medieval bruiser. 
There is also the possibility, considering the brutality 
of many old nicknames, that the bearer of the name 
had been judicially deprived of his right hand, a very 
common punishment, especially for striking a feudal 
superior. Thus Renaut de Montauban, finding that 
his unknown opponent is Charlemagne, exclaims — 

" J'ai forfait le poing destre dont je l'ai adese (struck)." 

We have some nicknames describing gait, e.g. 

Ambler and Shay lor — 

" I shayle, as a man or horse dothe that gothe croked with his 
leggs, je vas eschays " (Palsgrave) — 

1 President Poincari's name appears to mean "square fist." 


and perhaps sometimes Trotter. If George Eliot had 
been a student of surnames she would hardly have 
named a heroine Nancy Lammiter, i.e. cripple — 

" Though ye may think him a lamiter, yet, grippie for grippie, he'll 
make the bluid spin frae under your nails " (Black Dwarf, ch. xvii.). 

It may also be a variant of Chaucer's limitour, a 
friar with authority to beg within certain bounds. 
Pettigrew and Pettifer are of French origin, pied de grue 
(crane) and pied de fer. The former is the origin of the 
word pedigree, from a sign used in drawing genea- 
logical trees. The Buckinghamshire name Puddifoot 
and the aristocratic Pauncefote are unsolved. I should 
like to suggest that the former is a corruption of 
Pettifer. This is not so wild as it looks. We find the 
intermediate form Puddifer, and the further cor- 
ruption to Puddifoot is no more impossible than the 
transformation of Ger. Saner-kraut, sour cabbage, into 
Fr. choucroute, where the " sour " has become the 
" cabbage." As for Pauncefote, I believe it simply 
means what it appears to, viz. " belly-foot," a curious 
formation, though not without parallels among obsolete 
rustic nicknames, and an almost literal equivalent of 
the Greek (Edipus. 

In other languages as well as English we find money 
nicknames. It is easy to understand how some of 
these come into existence, e.g. that Pierce Pennilesse 
was the opposite of Thomas Thousandpound, whose 
name occurs c. 1300. With the latter we may com- 
pare Fr. Centlivre, the name of an English lady drama- 
tist of the eighteenth century. Moneypenny is found 
in 1273 as manipeni, and a Londoner named Manypeny 
died in 1348. The Money- is partly north country, 
partly imitative. Money itself is usually occupative 


or local (p. 165), and Shilling is the Anglo-Saxon name 
Scilling. The oldest and commonest of such nick- 
names is the simple Penny, with which we may com- 
pare the German surname Pfennig and its compounds 
Barpfennig, Weisspfennig, etc. The early adoption of 
this coin-name as a personal name is due to the fact 
that the word was taken in the sense of money in 
general. We still speak of a rich man as " worth a 
pretty penny." Hallmark is folk-etymology for the 
medievalhalf-mark. Such medieval namesas four-pence, 
twenty-mark, etc., probably now obsolete, are paralleled 
by Fr. Quatresous and Sixdenier, still to be found in the 
Paris Directory. It would be easy to form conjectures 
as to the various ways in which such names may have 
come into existence. To the same class must belong 
Besant, the name of a coin from Byzantium, its foreign 
origin giving it a dignity which is absent from the 
native Farthing and Halfpenny, though the latter, in 
one instance, was improved beyond recognition into 
Mac Alpine. 

There is also a small group of surnames derived 
from oaths or exclamations which by habitual use 
became associated with certain individuals. We know 
that monarchs had a special tendency to indulge in a 
favourite expletive. To Roger de Collerye we owe 
some information as to the imprecations preferred by 
four French kings — 

" Quand la Pasque-Dieu (Louis XI.) deceda, 
Le Bon Jour Dieu (Charles VIII.) luy succeda ; 
Au Bon Jour Dieu deffunct et mort 
Succeda le Dyable m'emport (Louis XII.). 
Luy decede, nous voyons comme 
Nous duist (governs) la Foy de Gentilhomme (Francis • I.)." 

So important was this branch of linguistics once con- 


sidered that Palsgrave, the French tutor of Princess 
Mary Tudor, includes in his Esclarcissement de la 
Langue francoyse a section on " The Maners of 
Cursyng." Among the examples are '* Le grant 
diable luy rompe le col et les deux jambes," " Le diable 
l'emporte, corps et ame, tripes et boyaux," which 
were unfortunately too long for surname purposes, but 
an abridged form of "Le feu Saint Anthoyne : l'arde " 
has given the French name Feulard. Such names, 
usually containing the name of God, e.g. Godmefetch, 
Helpusgod, have mostly disappeared in this country ; 
but Dieuleveut and Dieumegard are still found in Paris, 
and Gottbehilt, God forbid, and Gotthelf, God help, 
occur in German. Godbehere still exists, and there is 
not the slightest reason why it should not be of the 
origin which its form indicates. In Gracedieu, thanks 
to God, the second element is an Old French dative. 
Pardoe, Purdue, whence Purdey, is for par Dieu — 

"I have a wyf pardee, as wel as thow" (A, 3158). 

There is a well-known professional footballer named 
Mordue ('sdeath), and a French composer named 
Boieldieu (God's bowels). The French nickname for 
an Englishman, Goddam 1 — 

" Those syllables intense, 
Nucleus of England's native eloquence" 

(Byron, The Island, iii. 5) — 

goes back to the fifteenth century, in which invective 
references to the godons are numerous. Such nick- 
names are still in common use in some parts of France — 

1 Saint Anthony's fire, i.e. erysipelas, burn him ! 

2 " Les Anglais en verite ajoutent par-ci, par-la quelques autres 
mots en conversant ; mais il est bien aise de voir que goddam est le 
fond de la langue" (Beaumarchais, Manage de Figaro, iii. 5). 


" Les Berrichons se designent souvent par le juron qui leur est 
familier. Ainsi ils diront : ' Diable me brule est bien malade. 
Norn d'un rat est a la foire. La femme a Diable m'estrangouille est 
morte. Le garfon a Bon You (Dieu) se marie avec la fille a Dieu me 
confonde.' " 

(Nyrop, Grammaire historique de la langue franqaise, iv. 209). 

Perhaps the most interesting group of nicknames 
is that of which we may take Shakespeare as the type. 
Incidentally we should be thankful that our greatest 
poet bore a name so much more picturesque than 
Corneille, crow, or Racine, root. It is agreed among 
all competent scholars that in compounds of this 
formation the verb was originally an imperative. 
This is shown by the form ; cf . ne'er-do-well, Fr. vaurien, 
Ger. Taugenichts, good - for - naught. Thus Hasluck 
cannot belong to this class, but must be an imitative 
form of the personal name Aslac, which we find in 
Aslockton. As Bardsley well says, it is impossible 
to retail all the nonsense that has been written about 
the name Shakespeare — " never a name in English 
nomenclature so simple or so certain in its origin ; it 
is exactly what it looks — shake-spear." The equiva- 
lent Schiittespeer is found in German, and we have also 
in English Shakeshaft, Waghom, Wagstaff, Breakspear, 
Winspear. " Winship the mariner " was a freeman 
of York in the fourteenth century. Cf. Benbow 
(bend-bow), Hurlbatt, and the less athletic Lovejoy, 
Makepeace. Gathergood and its opposite Scattergood 
are of similar origin, good having here the sense of 
goods. Dogood is sometimes for Toogood, and the 
latter may be, like Thoroughgood, an imitative form 
of Thurgod (p. 73) ; but both names may also be 
taken literally, for we find Ger. Thunichtgut, do no 
good, and Fr. Troplong. As a pendant to Dolittle 
we find a medieval hack-little, no doubt a lazy wood- 


cutter, while virtue is represented by a twelfth-cen- 
tury tire-little. Sherwin in some cases represents the 
medieval schere-wynd, applied to a swift runner ; cf . 
Ger. Schneidewind, cut wind, and Fr. Tranchevent. A 
nurseryman at Highgate has the appropriate name 
Cutbush, the French equivalent of which, Taillebois, 
has given us Tallboys; and a famous herbalist was 
named Culpepper. In Gathercole the second element 
may mean cabbage or charcoal. In one case, Horni- 
blow for horn-blow, the verb comes after its object. 

Names of this formation are very common in Mid. 
English as in Old French, and often bear witness to a 
violent or brutal nature. Thus scorch-beef, which is 
found in the Hundred Rolls, has no connection with 
careless cookery ; it is Old Fr. escorche(ecorche)-buef, 
flay ox, a name given to some medieval " Skin-the- 
goat." Catchpole (p. 184) is formed in the same way, 
and in French we find, applied to law officials, the 
surnames Baillehart, give l halter, and Baillehache, give 
axe, the latter still appropriately borne, as Bailhache, 
by an English judge. 

It has sometimes been assumed that most names of 
this class are due to folk-etymology. The frequency 
of their occurrence in Mid. English and in continental 
languages makes it certain that the contrary is the 
case and that many surnames of obscure origin are 
perversions of this very large and popular class. I 
have seen it stated somewhere that Shakespeare is a 
corruption of an Old French name Sacquespee,* the 
theorist being apparently unable to see that this latter, 
meaning draw-sword, is merely an additional argument, 

1 Baffler, the usual Old French for to give, is still used collo- 
quially and in dialect. 

2 Of common occurrence in Mid. English records. 


if such were needed, for the literal interpretation of 
the English name. 1 

Tredgold seems to have been conferred on some 
medieval stoic, for we find also spumegold. With- 
out pinning our faith to any particular anecdote, 
we need have no hesitation in accepting Turnbull 
as a sobriquet conferred for some feat of strength 
and daring on a stalwart Borderer. We find the 
corresponding Tornebeuf in Old French, and Turn- 
buck also occurs. Trumbull and Trumble are variants 
due to metathesis followed by assimilation (p. 35), while 
Tremble is a very degenerate form. In Knatchbull we 
have a dialect form of the verb to " snatch " in its oldest 
sense of to seize. Crawcour is Fr. Crhvecceur , break- 
heart, which has also become a local name in France. 
With Shacklock, shake-lock, and Sherlock, Shurlock, 
shear-lock, we may compare. Robin Hood's comrade 
Scathelock, though the precise interpretation of all three 
names is difficult. Rackstraw, rake-straw, corresponds 
to Fr. Grattepaille. Golightly means much the same as 
Lightfoot (p. 126), nor need we hesitate to regard the 
John Gotobed 2 who lived in Cambridgeshire in 1273 
as a notorious sluggard compared with whom his 
neighbour Serl go-to-kirke was a shining example. 
Telfer is Fr. taille-fer, the iron cleaver, and Henry II. 's 
yacht captain was Alan Trenchemer, the sea cleaver. 
He had a contemporary named Ventados, wind abaft. 

1 In one day's reading I came across the following : Baillebien 
(give good), Baysedame (kiss lady), Esveillechien (wake dog), 
Lievelance (raise lance), Metlefrein (put the bridle), Tracepurcel 
(track hog), Turnecotel (turn coat), together with the native Cache- 
hare and Hoppeschort. 

3 The name is still found in the same county. Undergraduates 
contemporary with the author occasionally slaked their thirst at 
a riverside inn kept by Bathsheba Gotobed. 


Slocomb has assumed a local aspect, but may very 
well correspond to Fr. Tardif or Ger. Miihsam, applied 
to some Weary Willie of the Middle Ages. Doubffire 
is a misspelling of dout-fire, from the dialect dout, to 
extinguish (do out), formed like don and doff. Fullalove, 
which does not belong to the same formation, is also 
found as plein d' amour — 

"Of Sir Lybeux and Pleyndamour " (B, 2090)- — ■ 

and corresponds to Ger. Liebevoll. Waddilove actually 
occurs in the Hundred Rolls as wade-in-love, presumably 
a nickname conferred on some medieval Don Juan. 

There is one curious little group of nicknames which 
seem to correspond to such Latin names as Piso, 
from pisum, a pea, and Cicero, from cicer — 

" Cicer, a small pulse, lesse than pease " (Cooper). 

Such are Barleycorn and Peppercorn, the former found 
in French as Graindorge. The rather romantic names 
Avenel and P ever el seem to mean very much the same, 
from Lat. avena, oats, and piper, pepper. In fact 
Peverel is found in Domesday as Piperellus, and Pep- 
perell still exists. With ( these may be mentioned 
Carbonel, corresponding to the French surname Char- 
bonneau, a little coal. 



" The man replied that he did not know the object of the building ; 
and to make it quite manifest that he really did not know, he put 
an adjective before the word ' object,' and another — that is, the 
same — before the word ' building.' With that he passed on his 
way, and Lord Jocelyn was left marvelling at the slender resources 
of our language, which makes one adjective do duty for so many 

(Besant, All Sorts and Conditions of Men, ch. xxxviii.) 

The rejection by the British workman of all adjectives 
but one is due to the same imaginative poverty which 
makes the adjective "nice" supreme in refined circles, 
and which limits the schoolgirl to " ripping" and her 
more self-conscious brother to the tempered " decent." 
But dozens of useful adjectives, now either obsolete or 
banished to rustic dialect, are found among our sur- 
names. The tendency to accompany every noun by an 
adjective seems to belong to some deep-rooted human 
instinct. To this is partly due the Protean character 
of this part of speech, for the word, like the coin, 
becomes dulled and worn in circulation and needs peri- 
odically to be withdrawn and replaced. An epithet 
which is complimentary in one generation is ironical 
in the next and eventually offensive. Moody, with 
its northern form Mudie, which now means morose, 
was once valiant (p. 5), and pert, surviving in the 
name Peart, meant active, brisk, etc. — 

" Awake the pert and nimble spirit of mirth." 

(Midsummer Night's Dream, i. i.) 


To interpret an adjectival nickname we must go to 
its meaning in Chaucer and his contemporaries. Silly, 
Seeley, Seely — 

"This sely, innocent Custance " (B, 682) — 

still means innocent when we speak of the " silly 
sheep " and happy in the phrase " silly Suffolk." 
It is cognate with Ger. selig, blessed, often used in 
speaking of the dead. We have a compound in 
Sillifant, simple child (see p. 94), and Selibam has 
become Silburn. Seely was also used for Cecil or Cecilia. 
Sadd was once sedate and steadfast — 

" But thogh this mayde tendre were of age, 
Yet in the brest of hire virginitee 
Ther was enclosed rype and sad corage " 

(E, 218); 

and as late as 1660 we find a book in defence of 
Charles I. described as — 

" A sad and impartial inquiry whether the King or Parliament 
began the war." 

Stout, valiant, now used euphemistically for fat, is 
cognate with Ger. stolz, proud, and possibly with Lat. 
stultus, foolish. The three ideas are not incompatible, 
for fools are notoriously proud of their folly and are 
said to be less subject to fear than the angels. Sturdy, 
Sturdee, once meant rebellious, pig-headed — 

" Sturdy, unbuxum, rebellis, contumax, inobediens." 

(Prompt. Parv.) 

Cotgrave offers a much wider choice for the French 
original — 

" Estourdi (Atourdi), dulled, amazed, astonished, dizzie-headed, 
or whose head seemes very much troubled ; (hence) also, heedlesse, 
inconsiderate, unadvised, witlesse, uncircumspect, rash, retchlesse, 
or carelesse ; and sottish, blockish, lumpish, lusk-like, without life, 
me tall, spirit." 



Sly and its variant Sleigh have degenerated in the same 
way as crafty and cunning, both of which once meant 
skilled. Chaucer calls the wings of Daedalus " his 
playes slye," i.e. his ingenious contrivances. Quick 
meant alert, lively, as in " the quick and the dead." 
Slight, cognate with Ger. schlecht, bad, once meant 
plain or simple. 

Many adjectives which are quite obsolete in literary 
English survive as surnames. Mid. English Lyte has 
been supplanted by its derivative Little, the opposite 
pair surviving as Mutch and Mickle. The poor parson 
did not fail — 

" In siknesse nor in meschief to visite 
The ferreste in his parisshe, muche and lyte." 

(A, 493-) 

We have for Lyte also the imitative Light ; cf. Light- 
wood. With Little may be mentioned Murch, an 
obsolete word for dwarf — 

" Murch, lytyl man, nanus." 

(Prompt. Parv.) 

Lenain is a fairly common name in France. Snell, 
swift and valiant, had become a personal name in 
Anglo-Saxon, but we find le snel in the Middle Ages. 
Freake, Frick, also meant valiant or warrior — 

" Ther was no freke that ther wolde flye" 

{Chevy Chase) ; 

but the Prompt. Parv. makes it equivalent to Craske 
(p. 212)— 

" Fryhe, or craske, in grete helth, crassus." 

It is cognate with Ger. frech, which now means impu- 
dent. Nott has already been mentioned (p. 16). Of 
the Yeoman we are told — 

" A not hed hadde he, with a broun visage." 

(A, 109.) 


Stark, cognate with starch, now usually means stiff, 
rather than strong— 

" I feele my lyraes stark and suffisaunt 
To do al that a man bilongeth to." 

(E, 1458.) 

But Stark is often for an earlier Sterk (cf . Clark and 
Clerk), which represents Mid. Eng. stirk, a heifer. In 
the cow with the crumpled horn we have a derivative 
of Mid. Eng. crum, crooked, whence the names Crum 
and Crump. Ludwig's German Diet. (1715) explains 
krumm as " crump, crooked, wry." The name Crook 
generally has the same meaning, the Ger. Krummbein 
corresponding to our northern Cruikshank. Glegg 
(Scand.), clear-sighted, has been confused with Clegg 
(Welsh), a rock. 

There are some adjectival surnames which are not 
immediately recognizable. Bolt, when not local (p. 133), 
is for bold, Leaf is imitative for lief, i.e. dear. Dear 
itself is of course hopelessly mixed up with Deer. The 
timorous-looking Fear is Fr. le fier, the proud or fierce. 
Skey is an old form of shy ; Bligh is for Blyth ; Hendy 
and Henty are the same word as handy, and had in 
Mid. English the sense of helpful, courteous — 

" Oure hoost tho spak, ' A, sire, ye sholde be hende 
And curteys, as a man of youre estat.' " 

(D, 1286.) 

For Savage we find also the archaic spelling Salvage 
(Lat. silvaticus) . Curtis is Norman Fr. curteis (courtois) . 
The adjective garish, now only poetical, but once 
commonly applied to gaudiness in dress, has given 
Gerrish. Quaint, which has so many meanings inter- 
mediate between its etymological sense of known or 
familiar (Lat. cognitus) and its present sense of unusual 
or unfamiliar, survives as Quint. But Coy is local, 


from Quy (Cambridgeshire). The name Neish repre- 
sents the familiar Midland adjective nesh, over-delicate, 
namby-pamby, Craske is an East Anglian word for 
fat, and Grouse is used in the north for sprightly, 
confident. To these we may add Ketch, Kedge, Gedge, 
from an East Anglian adjective meaning lively— 

" Kygge, or joly, jocundus " (Prompt. Parv.) — 

and Spragg, etymologically akin to Spry. Bragg was 
once used for bold or brave, without any uncompli- 
mentary suggestion. The New English Dictionary 
quotes (c. 1310) from a lyric poem — 

" That maketh us so brag and bolde 
And biddeth us ben blythe." 

Crease is a West-country word for squeamish, but 
the East Anglian name Creasey, Cressy, is for the local 
Kersey (Suffolk). The only solution of Pratt is that 
it is Anglo-Sax. prmtt, cunning, adopted early as a 
personal name, while Storr, of Scandinavian origin, 
means big, strong. It is cognate with Steer, a bull. 
Devey and Dombey seem to be the diminutive forms 
of deaf and dumb, which are still used in dialect in 
reference to persons thus afflicted. We find in French 
and German surnames corresponding to these very 
natural nicknames. Cf. Crombie from Crum (p. 211). 
A large proportion of our adjectival nicknames are 
of French origin. Le bel appears not only as Bell but 
also, through Picard, as Beat. Other examples are 
Boon, Bone, Bunn (bon), Grant (grand), Bass (bas) 
and its derivative Bassett, Dasent (d6cent), Follett and 
Folliott, dim. of fol (fou), mad, which also appears in 
the compound Foljambe. Mordaunt means biting. 
Power is Anglo-Fr. le poure (le pauvre) and Grace is 


for le gras, the fat. Joliffe represents the Old French 
form of jolt — 

"This Absolon, that jolif was and gay, 
Gooth with a sencer (censer) on the haliday." 

(A, 3339-) 

Prynne, now Pring, is Anglo-Fr. le prin, the first, from 
the Old French adjective which survives in ^>n«temps. 
Cf. our name Prime and the French name Premier. 
The Old French adjective Gent, now replaced by gentil, 
generally means slender in Mid. English — 

"Fair was this yonge wyf, and therwithal 
As any wezele hir body gent and smal." 

(A, 3233) 

Begg is in some cases le begue, the stammerer. In 
Prowse and Prout we have the nominative and objective 
(see p. 9, n.) of an Old French adjective now repre- 
sented by preux and prude, generally thought to be 
related in some way to Lat. pro in pro sum, and 
perhaps the source of our Proud. 

Gross is of course Fr. le gros, but Grote represents Du. 
groot, great, probably unconnected with the French 
word. The Devonshire name Coffin, which is found in 
that county in the twelfth century, is the same as 
Caffyn, and both are the Fr. Chauvin, bald, the name 
of the theologian whom we know better in the latinized 
form Calvin. Here belongs probably Shovel, Fr. 
Chauvel. We also have the simple Chaff e, Old Fr. 
chauf (chauve), bald. Gay lard, sometimes made into 
the imitative Gay lord, is Fr. gaillard, brisk, lively— 

" Gaillard he was as goldfynch in the shawe." 

(A, 4367.) 

Especially common are colour nicknames, generally 
due to the complexion, but sometimes to the garb. 
As we have already seen (p. 149), Black and its variant 


Blake sometimes mean pale. Blagg is the same word ; 
cf. Blagrave (see p. no). White has no doubt been 
reinforced by wight, valiant — 

" Oh for one hour of Wallace 
Or well-skilled Bruce to rule the fight." 

(Marmion, vi. 20.) 

As an epithet applied to the hair we often find Hoar; 
cf. Horlock. Redd is rare, the usual forms being the 
northern Reid, Reed, Read ; but we also have Rudd from 
Anglo-Sax. rud, whence ruddy and the name Ruddock, 
really a bird nickname, the redbreast. To these must 
be added Rudge, Fr. rouge, Rouse, Rush and Russ, Fr. 
roux, and Russell or Rowsell, Old Fr. roussel (Rousseau) . 
The commonest nickname for a fair-haired person was 
Blunt, Blount, Fr. blond, with its dim. Blundell, but 
the true English name is Fairfax, from Anglo-Sax. 
feax, hair. The New English Dictionary quotes from 
the fifteenth century — 

" Then they lowsyd hur feyre faxe, 
That was yelowe as the waxe." 

The adjective dun was once a regular name, like 
Dobbin or Dapple, for a cart-horse ; hence the name of 
the old rural sport " Dun in the mire " — 

" If thou art dun we'll draw thee from the mire." 

(Romeo and Juliet, i. 4.) 

It is possible that the name Dunn is sometimes due 
to this specific application of the word. The colour 
blue appears as Blew — 

" At last he rose, and twitch'd his mantle blew : 
To-morrow to fresh woods and pastures new " 

[Lycidas, 1. 192) — 

and earlier still as Blow — 

" Blak, bio, grenysh, swartysh, reed." 

(House of Fame, iii. 557.) 


Other colour names of French origin are Morel, 
swarthy, like a Moor, also found as Murrell, 1 and Burnett, 
Burnett, dims, of brun, brown. Chaucer speaks of — 

" Daun 2 Burnel the asse " (B, 4502) ; 
" Daun Russel the fox " (B, 4524.) 

But both Burnett and Burnett may also be local from 
places ending in -hill and -head (p. 126), and Burnett is 
sometimes for Burnard. The same applies to Burrell, 
usually taken to be from Mid. Eng. borel, a rough 
material, Old Fr. bur el (bureau), also used metaphori- 
cally in the sense of plain, uneducated — 

"And moore we seen of Cristes secree thynges 
Than buret folk, al though they weren kynges." 

(D, 1871.) 

The name can equally well be the local Burhill or 

Murray is too common to be referred entirely to the 
Scottish name and is sometimes for murrey, dark red 
(Fr. mure, mulberry). It may also represent merry, 
in its variant form murie, which is Mid. English, and 
not, as might appear, Amurrican — 

" His murie men comanded he 
To make hym bothe game and glee." 

(B, 2029.) 

Pook, of uncertain origin, is supposed to have been a 
dark russet colour. Bayard, a derivative of bay, 
was the name of several famous war-horses. Cf. 
Blank and Blanchard. The name Soar is from the 
Old French adjective sor, bright yellow. It is of 
Germanic origin and cognate with sear. The dim. 
Sorrel may be a colour name, but it was applied in 

1 This, like Merrill, is sometimes from Muriel. 

3 Lat. dominus, the masculine form of dame in Old French. 


venery to a buck in the third year, of course in refer- 
ence to colour; and some of our names, e.g. Brocket 
and Prickett, 1 both applied to a two-year-old stag, must 
sometimes be referred to this important department 
of medieval language. Holofernes uses some of these 
terms in his idiotic verses — 

" The preyful princess pierc'd and prick'd a pretty pleasing pricket ; 
Some say a sore ; but not a sore, till now made sore with shooting. 
The dogs did yell ; put I to sore, then sorel jumps from thicket." 

(Love's Labour's Lost, iv. 2.) 

A few adjective nicknames of Celtic origin are so 
common that they may be included here. Such are the 
Welsh Gough, Goff, Gooch, Gutch, red, Gwynn and 
Wynne, white, Lloyd, grey, Sayce, Saxon, foreigner, 
Vaughan, little, and the Gaelic Bain, Bean, white, 
Boyd, Bowie, yellow-haired, Dow, Duff, black, Finn, 
fair, Glass, grey, Roy, Roe, red. From Cornish come 
Coad, old, and Couch, red, while Bean is the Cornish 
for small, and Tyacke means a farmer. It is likely 
that both Begg and Moore owe something to the Gaelic 
adjectives for little and big, as in the well-known 
names of Callum Beg, Edward Waverley's gillie, and 
' McCallum More. The Gaelic Begg is cognate with the 
Welsh Vaughan. Two other famous Highland nick- 
names which are very familiar in England are Cameron, 
crooked nose, and Campbell, wry mouth. With these 
may be mentioned the Irish Kennedy, ugly head, the 
name of the father of Brian Boru. 

1 Both words are connected with the spiky young horns, Fr. 
broche, spit, being applied in venery to the pointed horns of the 
second year. 



"As I think I have already said, one of Umslopogaas' Zulu 
names was The Woodpecker." 

(Haggard,' A Uan Quatermain, ch. vii.) 

The great majority of nicknames coming under the 
Tieadings typified by Bird and Fowell, Best, and Fish or 
Fisk (Scand.) are easily identified. But here, as every- 
where in the subject, pitfalls abound. The name Best 
itself is an example of a now misleading spelling re- 
tained for obvious reasons — 

"First, on the wal was peynted a forest, 
" In which ther dwelleth neither man nor best." 

(A, 1976.) 

We do not find exotic animals, nor even the beasts of 
heraldry, at all frequently. Leppard, leopard, is in 
some cases for the Ger. Liebhart; and Griffin, when 
not Welsh, should no doubt be included among inn- 
signs. Oliphant, i.e. elephant — 

" For maystow surmounten thise olifauntes in gretnesse or weighte 
of body " (Boece, 782) — 

may be a genuine nickname, but Roland's ivory horn 
was also called by this name, and the surname may 
go back to some legendary connection of the same kind. 
Bear is not uncommon, captive bears being familiar 
to a period in which the title bear-ward is frequently 
met with. It is possible that Drake may sometimes 



represent Anglo-Sax. draca, dragon, rather than the 
bird, but the latter is unmistakable in Sheldrick, for 
sheldrake. As a rule, animal nicknames were taken 
rather from the domestic species with which the 
peasantry were familiar and whose habits would readily 
suggest comparisons, generally disparaging, with those 
of their neighbours. 

Bird names are especially common, and it does not 
need much imagination to see how readily and naturally 
a man might be nicknamed Hawke for his fierceness, 
Crowe from a gloomy aspect, or Nightingale for the gift 
of sweet song. Many of these surnames go back to 
words which are now either obsolete or found only in 
dialect. The peacock was once the Poe, an early loan 
from Lat. pavo, or, more fully, Pocock — 

" A sheaf of pocok arwes, bright and kene, 
Under his belt he bar ful thriftily." 

(A, 104.) 

The name Pay is another form of the same word. 
Coe, whence Hedgecoe, is an old name for the jackdaw — 

" Cadow, or coo, or chogh (chough), monedula " 

(Prompt. Pan.') — 

but may also stand for cow, as we find, in defiance of 
gender and sex, such entries as Robert le cow, William 
le vache. Those birds which have now assumed a font- 
name, such as Jack daw, Mag pie, of course occur with- 
out it as surnames, e.g. Daw and Pye — 

" The thief the chough, and eek the jangelyng pye " 

(Parliament of Fowls, 305). 

The latter has a dim. Pyatt. 

Rainbird is a local name for the green woodpecker. 
As a surname it may also, like Rainbow, be an imitative 
form of Fr. Rimbaud or Raimbaud, identical with 

BIRDS 219 

Anglo-Sax. Regenbeald. Knott is the name of a bird 
which frequents the sea-shore and, mindful of Cnut's 
wisdom, retreats nimbly before the advancing surf — 

" The knot that called was Canutus' bird of old." 

(Drayton, Polyolbion, xxv. 368.) 

This historical connection is most probably due to 
folk-etymology. Titmus is of course for tit-mouse. 
Dialect names for the woodpecker survive in Speight, 
Speke, and Spick, Pick. The same bird was also 
called woodwall — 

" In many places were nyghtyngales, 
Alpes, fynches, and wodewahs " 

(Romaunt of the Rose, 567) — 

hence, in some cases, the name Woodatt. The Alpe, 
or bullfinch, mentioned in the above lines, also survives 
as a surname. Dunnock and Pinnock are dialect names 
for the sparrow. It was called in Anglo-Norman 
muisson, whence Musson. Starling is a dim. of Mid. 
Eng. stare, which has itself given the surname Starr — 

" The stare, that the counseyl can be-wrye." 

(Parliament of Fowls, 348. } 

Heron is the French form of the bird-name which was 
in English Heme — 

" I come from haunts of coot and hern." 

(Tennyson, The Brook, 1. 1.) 

The Old French dim. heronceau also passed into 

English — 

"I wol nat tellen of hir strange sewes (courses), 
Ne of hir swannes, ne of hire heronsewes." 

(F, 67.) 

As a surname it has been assimilated to the local, 
and partly identical, Heamshaw (p. no). Some com- 
mentators go to this word to explain Hamlet's use of 
handsaw — 


"lam but mad north-north-west : when the^wind is southerly, 
I know a hawk from a handsaw" (Hamlet, ii. 2). 

When the author's father was a boy in Suffolk seventy 
years ago, the local name for the bird was pronounced 
exactly like answer. Grew is Fr. grue, crane, Lat. grus, 
gru-. Butter, Fr. butor, " a bittor " (Cotgrave), is a 
dialect name for the bittern, called a " butter-bump " 
by Tennyson's Northern Farmer (1. 31). Culver 
is a very early loan-word from Latin — 

" Columba, a culver, a dove " 

(Cooper) — 

hence the local Culverhouse. Dove often becomes Duff. 
Whichetto, which can be seen both in Cambridge and 
Hammersmith, is Ital. uccello, identical with Fr. oiseau, 
Vulgar Lat. avicellus. Popjoy may have been applied 
to the successful archer who became king of the 
popinjay for the year. The derivation of the word, 
Old Fr. papegai, whence Mid. Eng. papejay — 

" The briddes synge, it is no nay, 

The sparhawk and the papejay, 

That joye it was to heere " 

(B, 1956)- 

is obscure, though various forms of it are found in 
most of the European languages. In English it was 
applied not only to the parrot, but also to the green 
woodpecker. The London Directory form is Pobgee. 
With bird nicknames may be mentioned Callow, un- 
fledged, cognate with Lat. calvus, bald. Its opposite 
also survives as Fleck and Flick — 

" Flygge, as byrdis, maturus, volabilis." 

(Prompt. Parv.) 

Margaret Paston, writing (1460) of the revived hopes of 
Henry VI., says — 

" Now he and alle his olde felawship put owt their fynnes, and 
am ryght flygge and mery." 


We have naturally a set of names taken from the 
various species of falcons. To this class belongs 
Haggard, probably related to Anglo-Sax. haga, hedge, 
and used of a hawk which had acquired incurable habits 
of wildness by preying for itself. But Haggard is also 
a personal name (p. 81). Spark, earlier Sparhawk, is 
the sparrow-hawk. It is found already in Anglo-Saxon 
as a personal name, which accounts for the patronymic 
Sparks. Tassell is a corruption of tiercel, a name given 
to the male goshawk, so termed, according to the 
legendary lore of venery — 

" Because he is, commonly, a third part lesse than the female." 


Juliet calls Romeo her " tassell gentle " (ii. 2). Muskett 
was a name given to a very small hawk — 

" Musket, a lytell hauke, mouchet." 


Mushet is the same name. It comes from Ital. 
moschetto, a little fly. For its later application to a 
firearm cf. falconet. Other names of the hawk class 
are Buzzard and Puttock, i.e. kite — 

" Milan, a kite, puttock, glead " 

(Cotgrave) ; 

and to the same bird we owe the name Gleed, from a 
Scandinavian name for the bird — 

" And the glede, and the kite, and the vulture after his kind." 

(Deut. xiv. 13.) 

To this class also belongs Ramage — 

" Ramage, of, or belonging to, branches ; also, ramage, hagard, 
wild, homely, rude " (Cotgrave) — 

and sometimes Lennard, an imitative form of the 

inferior hawk called a lanner — 

" Falcunculus, a leonard." 

(Holyoak, Lat, Diet., 1612.) 


Povey is a dialect name for the owl, and Howlett is not 
always a double dim. of Hugh (p. 59). 

Among beast nicknames we find special attention 
given, as in modern vituperation, to the swine, although 
we do not find this true English word, unless it be oc- 
casionally disguised as Swain. Hogg does not belong 
exclusively to this class, as it is used in dialect both 
of a young sheep and a yearling colt. Anglo-Sax. 
sugu, sow, survives in Sugg. Purcell is Old Fr. fourcel 
(pourceau), dim. of Lat. ftorcus, and I take Pockett 
to be a disguised form of the obsolete porket — 

" Porculus, a pygg : a shoote : a porket." 


The word shoote in the above gloss is now the dialect 
shot, a young pig, which has given the surname Shott. 
But Scutt is from a Mid. English adjective meaning 
short — 

" Scute, or shorte, curtus, brevis " 

(Prompt. Paw.) — 

and is also an old name for the hare. Two other names 
for the pig are the northern Gait and the Lincolnshire 
Grice — 

" Marcassin, a young wild boare ; a shoot or grice." 


Grice also represents le gris, the grey ; cf . Grace 
for le gras (p. 212). Bacon is occasionally found as 
le bacon, presumably a bacon-hog, but it is generally a 
personal name. As it is common in French, it would 
appear to be an Old French accusative to Back, going 
back to Germanic Bacco (see p. 125). Rinks is Mid. 
Eng. hengst, a stallion, and is thus identical with Hengist 
(p. 186). Stott means both a bullock and a nag (p. 1.79) . 
Everyone remembers Wamba's sage disquisition on 
the names of animals in the first chapter of Ivanhoc. 


Like much of Scott's archaeology it is a little anachron- 
istic, for the live animals were also called veals and 
muttons for centuries after Wamba's death — 

" Mouton, a mutton, a weather"; "veau, a calfe, or veale." 


Calf has become very rare as a surname, though K alb 
is still common in Germany. Bardsley regards Duncalf 
and Metcalf as perverted from dun-croft and meadow- 
croft. It seems possible that they may be for down- 
calf and mead-calf, from the locality of the pasture, 
but this is a pure guess on my part. It is curious that 
beef does not appear to have survived, though Lebceuf 
is common in French, and bullocks are still called 
" beeves " in Scotland. Tegg is still used by butchers 
for a two-year-old sheep. Palsgrave gives it another 
meaning — 

" Tegg, or pricket (p. 216), saillant." 

Roe is also found in the older forms Rae and Ray, of 
course confused with Wray (p. 127), as Roe itself is 
with Rowe (p. 9). Doe often becomes Dowe. Hind 
is usually occupative (p. 35), but Fr. Labiche shows 
that it must sometimes be a nickname — 

" Biche, a hind ; the female of a stagge.'' 


Pollard was applied to a beast or stag that had lost its 
horns — 

" He has no horns, sir, has he ? " 
"No, sir, he's a pollard." 

(Beaumont and Fletcher, Philaster, v. 4.) 

Leverett is certified by the French surname Levrault. 
Derivation from Lever, Anglo-Sax. Leofhere, whence 
Levers, Leverson, or Leveson, is much less probable, 
as these Anglo-Saxon names rarely form dims, (see 
p. 76) . Luttrel is in French Loutrel, perhaps a dim. of 


loutre, otter, Lat. lutra. From the medieval lutrer or 
lutrarius, otter hunter, we get Lutterer, no doubt con- 
fused with the musical Luter. 

While Katt is fairly common in the eastern counties, 
Robertus le chien and Willelmus le curre, who were 
living about the end of the twelfth century, are now 
completely disguised as Ken and Kerr. Modern French 
has both Lechien and the Norman Lequien. 1 We owe 
a few other surnames to the friend of man. Kennett, 
from a Norman dim. of chien, meant greyhound — 

" Kenette, hounde, leporarius." 

(Prompt. Parv.) 

The origin of the name Talbot is unknown, and it is 
uncertain whether the hound or the family should have 
precedence ; but Chaucer seems to use it as the proper 
name of a hound — 

" Ran Colle our dogge, and Talbot, and Gerland 
And Malkyn, with a dystaf in hir hand." 

(B, 4573-) 

The great Earl of Shrewsbury is affectionately called 
" Talbot, our good dogge " in political rhymes of the 
fifteenth century. 

In early dictionaries may be found long lists of the 
fanciful names, such as Bright, Lightfoot, Ranger, Ring- 
wood, Swift, Tempest, given to hounds. This practice 
seems to throw some light on such surnames as Tempest, 
with which we may compare the German names Storm 
and Sturm. In the Pipe Rolls the name le esturmi, the 
stormy, occurs several times. To the same class belongs 
Thunder, found in the Pipe Rolls as tonitruus, and not 
therefore necessarily a perversion of Tunder, i.e. 
Sherman (p. 170) — 

1 Lehain, the name of a famous French actor, has the same origin. 


" Tandeur de draps, a shearman, or clothworker." 


Garland, used by Chaucer as a dog's name, was earlier 
graland, and, as le garlaunde is also found, it may be 
referred to Old Fr. grailler, to trumpet. It is no doubt 
also local. 

We should expect Fox to be strongly represented, 
and we find the compounds Colfox and Stelfox. The 
first means black fox — 

'• A colfox ful of sly iniquitee " 

(B, 4405)— 

and I conjecture that the first part of Stelfox is con- 
nected with stealing, as in the medieval name stele-cat — 

" The two constables made a thorough search and found John 
Stelfox hiding behind some bushes. Some of the jewellery was found 
upon him " (Daily Chronicle, June 3, 191 3). 

In the north a fox is called Tod, whence Todhunter. 
This Tod is probably a personal name, like the French 
Renard and the Scottish Lawrie or Lowrie, applied 
to the same animal. Allan Ramsay calls him " slee 
Tod Lowrie." From the badger we have Brock and 
sometimes Gray — 

" Blaireau, a badger, gray, boason, brock " 

(Cotgrave) — 

but Badger itself is occupative (p. 181). The polecat 
survives as Fitch, Fitchett, and Fitchew — 

" Fissau, a fitch, or fulmart." 


On fish-names Bardsley remarks, " We may quote 
the famous chapter on ' Snakes in Iceland ' : ' There 
are no snakes in Iceland,' and say there are no 
fish-names in England." This is almost true. The 
absence of marked traits of character in the, usually 


invisible, fish would militate against the adoption of 
such names. We should not expect to find the shark to 
be represented, for the word is of too late occurrence. 
But Whale is fairly common. Whale the mariner 
received £2 from Henry VII. 's privy purse in 1498. 
The story of Jonah, or very generous proportions, 
may have originated the name Whalebelly, " borne 
by a respectable family in south-east England " 
(Bardsley) . 

But there would obviously be no great temptation to 
go fishing for nicknames when the beasts of the farm- 
yard and the forest, the birds of the marshes and the 
air, offered on every side easily understood comparisons. 
At the same time Bardsley's statement goes a little 
too far. He explains Gudgeon as a corruption of 
Goodison. But this, true though it may be in some 
cases, will not explain the very common French sur- 
name Goujon. The phrase ' ' greedy gudgeon ' ' suggests 
that in this case a certain amount of character had 
been noticed in the fish. Sturgeon also seems to be 
a genuine fish-name. We find Fr. Lesturgeon and Ger. 
Stoer, both meaning the same. We have also Smelt 
and the synonymous Spurling. In French and German 
we find other surnames which undoubtedly belong to 
this class, but they are not numerous and probably at 
first occurred only in regions where fishing or fish- 
curing were important industries. 

A few examples will show that apparent fish-names 
are usually not genuine. Chubb is for Job (p. 32), 
Eeles is one of the numerous derivatives of Elias 
(P- 85), Hake is, like Hack, from the Scandinavian 
Haco, Haddock is a perversion of the local Haydock, 
Lamprey I take to be Fr. long-pre, long meadow. 
We find the halfway form in Fr. Lompre. Pike is 


local (p. 107), Pilchard is for Pilcher (p. 171), Roach is 
Fr. Laroche, Salmon is for Salomon, and Turbot is the 
Anglo-Sax. Thurbeorht, which has also given Tarbut, 
as Thurgod has given Targett. Dolphin, Herring, 
and Spratt or Sprot are old personal names possibly 
unconnected with the corresponding fish-names. 

We have also many surnames due to physical re- 
semblances not extending beyond one feature. Birdseye 
may be sometimes of local origin, from ey, island 
(p. 117), but as a genuine nickname it is as natural as 
the sobriquet of Hawkeye which Natty Bumppo re- 
ceived from the Hurons. German has the much less 
pleasing Gansauge, goose-eye ; and Alan oil de larrun, 
thief's eye, was fined for very reprehensible conduct in 
1 183. To explain Crowfoot as an imitative variant 
of Crawford is absurd when we find a dozen German 
surnames of the same class and formation and as many 
in Old or Modern French beginning with pied de. 
Cf. Pettigrew (p. 201). We find in the Paris Directory 
not only Piedeleu (Old Fr. leu, wolf) and Piedoie, 
(pie, goose), but even the full Pied-de-LUvre, Professeur 
a la Faculte de droit. The name Bulleid was spelt in 
the sixteenth century buV-hed, i.e. bull-head, a literal 
rendering of Front de Bceuf. Weatherhead (p. 179) is 
perhaps usually a nickname — 

" For that old weather-headed fool, I know how to laugh at him.'' 

(Congreve, Love for Love, ii. 7.) 

Coxhead is another obvious nickname. A careful 
analysis of some of the most important medieval 
name-lists would furnish hundreds of further ex- 
amples, some too outspoken to have survived into 
our degenerate age, and others which are now so 
corrupted that their original vigour is quite lost. 


Puns and jokes upon proper names are, face Gregory 
the Great and Shakespeare, usually very inept and 
stupid ; but the following lines by James Smith, which 
may be new to some of my readers, are really clever — 

Men once were surnamed from their shape or estate 

(You all may from History worm it) ; 
There was Lewis the Bulky, and Henry the Great, 

John Lackland, and Peter the Hermit. 
But now, when the door-plates of Misters and Dames 

Are read, each so constantly varies 
From the owner's trade, figure, and calling, Surnames 

Seem given by the rule of contraries. 

Mr. Box, though provoked, never doubles his fist, 

Mr. Bums, in his grate, has no fuel ; 
Mr. Playfair won't catch me at hazard or whist, 

Mr. Coward was wing'd in a duel. 
Mr. Wise is a dunce, Mr. King is a whig, 

Mr. Coffin's uncommonly sprightly, 
And huge Mr. Little broke down in a gig, 

While driving fat Mrs. Golightly. 

Mrs. Drinkwater's apt to indulge in a dram, 

Mrs. Angel's an absolute fury, 
And meek Mr. Lyon let fierce Mr. Lamb 

Tweak his nose in the lobby of Drury. 
At Bath, where the feeble go more than the stout, 

(A conduct well worthy of Nero), 
Over poor Mr. Lightfoot, confined with the gout, 

Mr. Heaviside danced a, Bolero. 

Miss Joy, wretched maid, when she chose Mr. Love, 

Found nothing but sorrow await her ; 
She now holds in wedlock, as true as a dove, 

That fondest of mates, Mr. Hayter. 
Mr. Oldcastle dwells in a modern-built hut, 

Miss Sage is of madcaps the archest ; 
Of all the queer bachelors Cupid e'er cut, 

Old Mr. Younghusband's the starchest. 


Mr. Child, in a passion, knock'd down Mr. Rock, 

Mr. Stone like an aspen-leaf shivers ; 
Miss Poole used to dance, but she stands like a stock 

Ever since she became Mrs. Rivers ; 
Mr. Swift hobbles onward, no mortal knows how, 

He moves as though cords had entwin'd him ; 
Mr. Metcalfe ran off, upon meeting a cow, 

With pale Mr. Turnbull behind him. 

Mr. Barker's as mute as a fish in the sea, 

Mr. Miles never moves on a journey ; 
Mr. Gotobed sits up till half-after three, 

Mr. Makepeace was bred an attorney. 
Mr. Gardiner can't tell a flower from a root, 

Mr. Wilde with timidity draws back, 
Mr. Ryder performs all his journeys on foot, 

Mr. Foote all his journeys on horseback. 

Mr. Penny, whose father was rolling in wealth, 

Kick'd down all his fortune his dad won ; 
Large Mr. Le Fever's the picture of health, 

Mr. Goodenough is but a bad one. 
Mr. Cruickshank stept into three thousand a year. 

By showing his leg to an heiress : — 
Now I hope you'll acknowledge I've made it quite clear 

That surnames ever go by contraries. 


N.B. — Most surnames have more than one form, many have over a score, 
and some have over a hundred. This index, consisting of about 3, 500 names, 
will contain twice or thrice as many for the reader who has mastered Ch. Ill, 
on sound and spelling. It includes only names still in use. 

Abadie, 130 
Abbey, 5, 130 
Abbott, 5 
Abbs, 62, 84 
Abdey, 130 
A'Beckett, 22 
Ablewhite, 112 
Aborn, 115 
Ackroyd, 1 1 1 
Acland, 114, 118 
Acomb, 106 
A'Court, 22 
Acres, 12 
Acton, 118 
Adams, 84 
Adamson, 84 
Aday, 84 
Adcock, 84 
Addey, 84 
Addis, 84 
Addiscombe, 106 
Addison, 84 
Adds, 84 
Addy, 84 
Addyman, 84 
Ade, 84 
Adeane, iS, 22 
Adee, 84 
Ades, 84 
Adey, 84 
Adie, 84 
Adkin, 84 
Adkinson, 84 
Adler, 55 
Adnett, 84 
Adnitt, 84 
Adnot, 84 
Ady, 84 
Affleck, 30 
Agar, 69 
Agate, 18, r24 
Agnew, 63 n. 1 

Aguilar, 172 
Ainger, 100 
Aitken, 84 
Aked, 126 
Akenside, 126 
Alabaster, 169 
Alabone, 35 
Alcock, 65 
Alcott, 133 
Alder, 118 
Alderson, 73 
Aldred, 72 
Aldridge, 72 
Aldwin, 73 
Aldworth, 123 
Algernon, 200 
Allard, 81 
Allbright, 71 
Allbutt, 71 
Allchin, 72 
Allen, 46 
Aliens on, no 
Allerton, 119 
Alley, 128 
Allfrey, 60 n. 1 
Allgood, 71, 95 
Allman, 97 
Allnut, 72 
Allsop, 108 
Allum, 122 
Allvey, 69 
Allways, 191 
Allwood, 109 
Allworthy, 123 
Allwright, 72 
Almond, 72, 97 
Alpe, 219 
Alston, 69 
Alured, 60 n. 1 
Alwin, 46, 72 
Amant, 191 
Ambler, 200 


Amery, 80 
Ames, 81 - 
Amies, 81 
Amner, 186 
Amor, 20 
Amos, 81 
Amyas, 100 
Anderson, 35, 87 
Angel, 135 
Anger, 100 
Anguish, 99 
Angwin, 100 
Anker, 167 
Annis, 88 
Ansell, 39 
Anson, 35 
Anstey, 94 
Anstiss, 94 
Applegarth, n, 124 
Applegate, 124 
Applejohn, 67 
Appleyard, n 
Applin, 34 
Apps, 37 
Arber, 153 
Arblaster, 169 
Arbuckle, 39 
Arch, 127 
Archbold, 81 
Archbutt, 81 
Aris, 100 
Arkle, 71 
Arkwright, 44 
Arlett, 193 
Arminger, 155 
Armitage, 130 
Armour, 36, 155 
Armstead, 122 
Amett, 14, 38 
Arrow, 135 
Arrowsmith, 169 
Arter, 61 


Arthur, 61 
Ascham, 118 
Ash, 118 
Ashbee, 122 
Ashburner, 174 
Ashby, 97 
Ashdown, 106 
Asher, 174 
Ashman, 64 
Askell, 39 
Askwith, 117 
Aspinall, 39 
Asquith, 117 
Astill, 39 
Aston, 118 
Athill, 23 
Atkin, 84 
Atkins, 61, 84 
Atkinson, 84 
Atterbury, 122 
Attewell, 22, 104 
Atwood, 104 
Aubrey, 82 
Auden, 73 
Auld, 31 
Austin, 87 
Auty, 14 
Aveling, 35 
Avenarius, 14 8 «. 
Avenel, 207 
Avery, 82 
Ayliffe, 108 
Ayliner, 72 
Aylward, 73 
Ayre, 195 
Ayscough, 107 

Bacchus, 83, 132 
Back, 125 
Bacon, 222 
Badcock, 57 
Badenough, 106 n. 
Badger, 181 
Badman, 57 
Bagg, 75 
Bagshaw, 75 
Bagster, 149 
Bailey, 45, 183 
Bailhache, 205 
Bain, 216 
Baines, 138 
Baker, 148 
Balaam, 85 
Balderston, 10S 
Baldwin, 69 
Balestier, 36, 169 
Ball, 8 
Ballard, 8 
Ballister, 169 
Banks, 105 
Bannerman, 185 


Bannister, 36, 169 
Barclay, 32 
Bardell, 69 
Barebones, 191 
Barfoot, 126 ^ 
Baring, 71 
Barker, 125, 150 
Barleycorn, 207 
Barnard, 17,1.68 
Barnby, 87 
Barnes, 132, 194 
Barnett, 9, 17, 68 
Barnfather, 194 
Barnum, 39, 122 
Barpfennig, 202 
Barr, 124 
Barraclough, 48 
Barrett, 17 

Barringer, 79 

Barron, 144 

Barrow, 107 

Barry, 100 

Barter, 155 

Bartle, 57 

Bartlett, 57, 63 

Bartley, 39 

Barton, 123 

Bartram, 81 

Baseley, 87 

Bass, 212 

Bassett, 212 

Bastable, 99 

Bastard, 194 

Basten, 60 ». 2 

Baster, 185 

Bastian, 60 n. 2 

Batch, 125 

Batchelor, 195 

Bates, 57 

Batt, 38, 57 

Batten, 57 

Battiscombe, 106 

Battle, 197 

Bauer, 146 

Bawcock, 65 

Bawden, 70 

Bawtree, 118 

Bax, 125 

Baxter, 149 

Bayard, 215 

Bayliss, 45 

Baynham, 67 

Beach, 116 

Beadle, 179 

Beadman, 188 

Beal, 212 

Beamish, 120, 139 

Bean, 216 

Bear, 217 

Bearcroft, 123 

Beard, 199 

Beaton,; 63, 66, 93 
Beattie, 93 
Beaufoy, 6 
Beaumont, 120, 138 
Beck, 115, 149 
Beckett, 115 
Beckwith, 117 
Beddoes, 66 
Bedward, 66 
Bee, 93 
Beech, 105 
Beecham, 139 
Beecher, 174 
Beecrdft, 123 
Beeforth, 139 
Beeman, 64 
Beer, 133 
Beerbohm, 119 
Beeson, 108 
Beeston, 108 
Beevor, 139 
Begg, 213, 216 
Belcher, 196 
Beldam, 196 
Belfield, 139 
Bell, 8, 94, 135 
Bellamy, 196 
Bellasis, 142 
Bellchambers, 134 
Bellew, 139 
Bellinger, 79 
Bellows, 132 
Benbow, 204 
Benn, 75 
Benner, 174 
Bennett, 46, 85, 166 

Benning, 71 

Benson, 76, 85 

Bensted, 75, 122 

Bent, 117 

Benyon, 66 

Bere, 133 

Berman, 180 

Bernard, 68 

Berner, 81 

Berry, 121 

Berryman, 121 

Bertenshaw, 39 

Besant, 202 

Best, 217 

Bethell, 66 

Bethune, 66 

Betts, 93 

Beverley, 104. 

Bevilacqua, 1,90 

Bevis, 100 

Bewsher, 196 

BickerstaSe, 40 

Bickersteth, 40, 122 

Bicknell, 31 

Bidder, 187 
Biddle, 179 
Biddulph, 53 
Bienaim6, 191 
Bierbaum, 119 
Biggar, 133 
Biggins, 38, 133 
Biggs, 38, 133 
Billiter, 29 ». 
Bindloss, 198 
Binns, 75 
Birch, 118 
Birchenough, 106 
Bird, 217 
Birdseye, 227 
Birkbeck, 115 
Birkenshaw, 39 
Bifkett, 126 
Birks, 118 
Birnbaum, 119 
Birtwistle, 128 
Bishop, 144 
Black, 213 
Blackburn, 116 
Blacker, 149 
Blackett, 126 
Blackledge, 163 
Blades, 136 
Blagg, 214 
Blagrave, 214 
Blake, 214 
Blaker, 149 
Blanchard, 215 
Blank, 215 
Blaxter, 149 
Blazey, 87 

Blenkinsop, 27, 39, 108 
Blew, 214 
Bligh, 211 
Bliss, 197 
Blomfield, 139 
Blood, 66 
Bloomer, 153 
Bloor, 150 
Bloss, 100 
Blount, 20, 214 
Blow, 214 
Blower, 150 
Blumenthal, 55 
Blundell, 20, 2T4 
Blunt, 20, 2,14 
Board, 133 
Boardman, J33 
Bocock, 65 
Bode, 74 
Boden, 70 
Bodger, 149 
Bodkin, 70 
Body, 70 
Bofley, 11 
Boffin, 11 


Boger, 149 
Boieldieu, 203 
Boileau, 190 
Bolt, 211 
Bompas, 121 
Bona venture, 197 
Bond, 71, 146, 177 
Bone, 10, 212 
Bonham, 122 
Bonheur, 191 
Bonjour, 191 
Bonnamy, 196 
Bonner, 33 
Bonser, 196 
Bontemps, 191 
Bonvallet, 145 
Bonvarlet, 145 
Bonvillain, 145 
Booker, 14, 149, 153 
Boon, 10, 212 
Boorman, 133 
Boot, 75 
Booth, 133 
Booty, 75 
Borden, 112 
Border, 133 , 
Borough, 121 
Borrow, 121 
Bosanquet, 51 
Bosher, 149 
Bostock, 122 
Boston, 123 
Boswell, 66 
Bott, 75 
Botting, 75 
Bottle, 88, 133 
Boulden, 70 
Boulter, 154 
Bouverie, 51 
Bow, 131 
Bowden, 70 
Bowdler, 173 
Bowen, 62 
Bower, 133, 168 
Bowerrnan, 133 
Bowes, 131 
Bowie, 216 
Bowker, 149 
Bowler, 152 
Bowmaker, 168 
Bowman, 64 
Bowser, 196 
Bowyer, 168 
Boxall, 39 
Boyce, 18, 140 
Boyd, 216 
Boyden, 70 
Boyer, 168 ». 
Boyes, 18, 140 
Brabazon, 100 
Bracegirdle, 198, 


Bracher, 17 
Braddock, 118 
Bradford, 99 
Bradlaugh, 107 
Bradley, 104 
Bradshaw, no 
Bragg, 212 
Braid, 31 
Braidwood, 109 
Braithwaite, 112 
Brand, 74 
Brandon, 106 
Brangwin, 40 
Bransom, 36 
Branson, 36 
Brasher, 17 
Brassey, 12 
Braund, 74 
Brazier, 17 
Breakspeare, 204 
Brebner, 100 
Breitkopf, 126 
Brett, 19, 99 
Brewer, 17 
Brewis, 132 
Brewster, 149 
Brice, 88 
Bridge, 96, 104 
Bridgeman, 64, 105 
Bridger, 105 
Bridges, 100, 104 
Briggs, 31 
Bright, 28 
Brigstocke, 122 
Brindejonc, 97 
Brinsley, 112 
Brinsmead, 112 
Briscoe, 107 
Bristol, 122 
Bristow, 99 
Britton, 19, 99 
Broadbent, 117 
Broadhead, 126 
Brock, 225 

Brockett, 115, 126, 216 
Brockhurst, no 
Brockley, 104 
Broker, 168 
Bromage, 123 
Bromet, 126 
Bromhead, 126 
Brook, 104, 115 
Brooker, 168 
Brooks, 104 
Brough, 121 
Brown, 43, 4; 
Browning, 71 
Brownrigg, 109 
Brownsword, 123 
Bruce, 66 
Brummel, 106 


Brunei, 37 
Bryant, 41 
Bubb, 75 
Buck, 118 
Buckett, 126 
Buckhurst, no 
Buckland, 114 
Buckle, 135 
Buckler, 155 
Buckmaster, 120 
Budd, 75, 135 
Buddie, 179 
Budworth, 75 
Buffery, 51 
Bugg," 77 
Bull, 5, 24, 135 
Bullard, 178 
Bulleid, 227 
Bullen, roo 
Buller, 187 
Bullinger, 32, 148 
Bullivant, 36 
Bulpitt, 127 
Bulstrode, no 
Bulteel, 49 
Bumble, 11 
Bumpus, 121 
Bunce, 10 
Bunker, 1 1 
Bunn, 10, 212 
Bunyan, 67 
Burchett, 126 
Burder, 165 
Burdon, 198 
Burgess, 145 
Burgh, 121 
Burgin, 99 
Burgoyne, 99 
Burke, 122 
Burman, 133 
Burnell, 37, 215 
Burnett, 215 
Bumup, 108 
Burrard, 180 
Burrell, 215 
Burt, 28 
Burward, 180 
Bury, 121 
Bush, 18, 119 
Busher, 149 
Busk, 18 
Buss, 18 
Butcher, 14, 148 
Butler, 16 
Butlin, 30 
Butt, 75, 135 
Butter, 220 
Butterfield, it2 
Button, 75 
Butts, 135 
Buttress, 131 


Buzzard, 221 
Byatt, 124 
Bye, 122 
Byers, 133 
Bythesea, 104 
Bywater, 115 

Cable, 88 
Cade, 88 
Cadman, 12 
Caesar, 82 
Caffyn, 213 
Cain, 85, 141 
Caird, 173 
Cairn, 106 
Cakebread, 156 
Calcott, 134 
Caldecott, 134 
Calf, 223 
Callender, 155 
Callis, 100 
Callow, 220 
Calthorp, 122 
Calver, 178 
Calvert, 178 
Calvin, 213 
Cameron, 216 
Camoys, 11 
Camp, 32, 149 
Campbell, 216 
Campion, 32 
Candish, 30 
Candler, 17 
Cane, 85 
Canham, 30 
Cannon, 165 
Cant, 99 
Cantelo, 139 
Canter, 166 
Cantrell, 166 
Capel, 130 
Capper, 19 
Capron, 198 
Carbonell, 207 
Care, 150 
Carlton, 32 
Carnell, 131 
Carpenter, 32, 163 
Carr, 113 
Carrick, 106 
Carrington, 101 
Carrodus, 32 
Carruthers, 32 
Carteret, 139 
Carthew, 67 
Carton, 172 
Carver, r86 
Casaubon, 51 
Case, 94 
Cash, 94 
Cass, 94 

Cassel, 55 
Cassell, 132 
Casson, 94 
Castle, 132 
Catchpole, 184 
Catherall, 180 
Catlin, 32, 36, 88 
Cator, 33, 164, 186 
Catt, 88 
Cattrall, 180 
Caudle, 39 
Caught, 128 
Cauldwell, 39, 129 
Caunter, 166 
Cayzer, 82, 144 
Cazenove, 133 
Centlivre, 201 
Chadwick, 88 
Chaffe, 213 
Chalk, 102 
Challands, 100 
Challen, 100 
Challis, 100 
Chalmers, 134 
Chaloner, 171 
Chamberlain, 183 
Champain, 99 
Champion, 32 
Champion de Cres- 

pigny, 51 
Champness, 20 
Champneys, 20, 99 
Chance, 197 
Chancellor, 32, r83 
Chandler, r7, 169, 185 
Chaney, 141 
Channell, 129 
Channen, 165 
Chant, 99 
Chaplin, 166 
Chapman, 23, .168 
Chappell, 32, 130 
Chappuis, 53 
Charity, 197 
Charles, 61 
Charlton, 32 
Charter, 166 
Charters, 166 
Chase, 124 
Chastney, 141 
Chater, 164 
Chattaway, 128 
Chaucer, i7r 
Chawner, 171 
Chaworth, 100 
Chaytor, 33, 164 
Cheap, 123 
Cheek, 200 
Cheese, 156 
Cheeseman, 20, 148 
Cheetham, 47 

Chell, 74 
Chenery, 142 
Chenevix, 51 
Chesney, 141 
Chettle, 74 
Child, 194 
Childers, 166 
Chinn, 199 
Chinnery, 142 
Chipp, 123 
Chisholm, 117 
Christie, 87 
Christmas, 88 
Chrystal, 87 
Chubb, 32, 85, 226 
Chucks, 10 
Chumley, 30 
Church, 32 
Churcher, 131 
Churchman, 131 
Churchward, 180 
Clapp, 149 
Clarabutt, 81 
Clare, 150 

Clark, 19, 32, 47, 163 
Clarkson, 147 
Clavinger, 155 
Clay, 102 
Claypole, 116 
Cleaver, 152 
Cleeve, 108 
Clegg, 211 
Cleveland, 114 
Cleverly, 104 
Clew, 108 
Cliff, 108 
Clift, 108 
Clitheroe, 107 
Clive, 108 
Close, 124 
Clougb, 108 
Clow, 108 
Clowser, T24 
Clucas, 66 
Coad, 75, 216 
Coates, 133 
Cobb, 9, 75 
Cobbett, 69, 76, 88 
Cobbin, 9 
Cobbold, 9, 69 
Cobham, 75 
Cock, 65, 135 
Cockayne, 98 
Cocker, 187 
Cocking, 65 
Cocks, 65 
Codd, 75 
Codlin, 12 
Codner, 151 
Coe, 218 
Coffer, 155 


Coffin, 213 
Coke, 12, 164 
Colbeck, 115 
Cole, 74 
Coleman, 64 
Colfox, 225 
Collard, 73 
Collett, 63, 166 
Colley, 22 
Collier, 174 
Collings, 35, 74 
Collins, 3, 22, 63 
Colonne, 131 
Colt, 51 
Coltard, 178 
Coltman, 64, r78 
Colvin, 73 
Combe, 18 
Comber, 170 
Compton, 106 
Comyn, 66 
Condy, 129 
Conner, 173 
Conquest, 197 
Constable, 45 
Converse, 166 
Conyers, 142 
Cook, 4 
Cookson, 147 
Coombes, 18 
Cooper, 44, 45 
Cope, 107 
Copeman, 168 
Copp, 107 
Copperwheat, 112 
Coppin, 9 
Copping, 63 
Cordeaux, 12 
Corderoy, 135 
Cordery, 135 
Cordner, 151 
Corker, 152 
Corneille, 204 
Comer, 154 
Cornish, 24, 96 
Cornwallis, 19, 24, 96 
Corrie, 134 
Corser, 151 
Cosser, 151 
Cossey, 128 
Coster, 182 
Cosway, 128 
Cotman, 133 
Cotter, 133 
Cotterill, 133 
Cotton, 134 
Cottrell, 133 
Couch, 216 
Court, 128 
Courtenay, 7 
Courtney, 7 


Courvoisier, 151 
Cousins, 193 
Cover, 45, 155 
Cowan, 54 
Coward, 10, 178 
Cowdery, 141 
Cowdrey, 141 
Cowper, 44 
Cowperthwaite, 112 
Cox, 65 
Coxall, 99 
Coxhead, 227 
Coy, 211 
Cozens, 193 
Cracknell, 156 
Cradock, 78 
Craft, 123 
Cragg, 106 
Craig, 106 
Cramer, 181 
Cranmer, 116 
Crashaw, no 
Craske, 212 
Craven, 10 
Crawcour, 206 
Creagh, 106 
Crease, 212 
Creasey, 212 
Creed, 197 
Cremer, 181 
Crewdson, 88 
Crick, 115 
Cripps, 37 
Crisp, 37 
Crocker, r74 
Crockett, 198 
Croft, 123 
Croker, 174 
Crombie, 212 
Crook, 117, 211 
Crosier, 166 
Cross, 17 
Crosskeys, 79, 135 
Crouch, 17 
Croucher, 17 
Crouse, 212 
Crowe, 218 
Crowfoot, 227 
Crowne, 135 
Crowninshield, 135 
Crowther, 161 
Crozier, 135, 166 
Cruden, 88 
Cruikshank, 211 
Crum, 24, 21 r 
Crump, 24, 211 
Cubitt, 29, 88 
Cuff, 75 

Cullen, 57 ft., 100 
Cullum, 122 
Culpepper, 205 


Culver, 220 
Culverhouse, 220 
Cumming, 66 
Cunditt, 129 
Cundy, 129 
Cunliffe, 108 
Cupples, 69 ». 
Curnow, 96 
Currer, 154 
Currie, 134 
Curry, 134 
Curryer, 154 
Curtis, 211 
Curzon, n 
Cuss, 193 
Cussens, 193 
Cust, 95 
Custance, 95 
Cutbush, 205 
Cutlack, 32 
Cutler, 96, 172 
Cutts, 88 
Cuvier, 45 

Dabbs, 31, 62 
Dabney, 16, 100, 138 
Daft, 47 
Daintree, 30 
Dainty, 30 
Daisy, 97 
Dakin, 165 
Dalbiac, 51 
Dale, 106 
Dallaway, 128 
Dallison, 38, 100 
Dallman, 100 
Dalmain, 100 
Dalziel, 29 
Dampier, 138 
Dance, 10, 85 
Dancock, 85 
Dane, 98 
Danger, 100 
Dangerfield, 139 
Danks, 38 
Dann, 85 
Dannatt, 85 
Danvers, 16, 100 
Darbishire, 97 
Darblay, 141 
Darby, 32 
Darcy, 101 
Darmsteter, 55 
Darwen, 115 
Darwin, 73 
Dasent, 212 
Daubeney, 16, 100, 

Davies, 43 
Daw, 218 
Dawbarn, 63 ». 1 


Dawe, 57 
Dawkes, 63 
Dawkins, 63 
Dawnay, 141 
Day, 57, 177 
Deacon, 165 
Deakin, 115 
Dean, 22, 112, 165 
Dear, 190, 211 
Dearlove, 36, 69 
Death, 101 
Dedman, 64 
Dee, 115 
Deedes, 75 
Deemer, 184 
Deer, 211 
De Foe, 141 
Dekker, 173 
Delamere, 12 
Delane, 51 
Delapole, 12 
Delaware, 129 
Dell, 106 
Delmar, 12 
Delves, 125 
Demange, 90 
Dempster, 184 
Dench, 97 
Dendy, 87 
Dene, 22, 112 
Denison, 145 
Denman, 112 
Denne, 22, 112 
Dennett, 82 
Dennis, 82, 98 
Denny, 82 
Dentry, 30 
Denyer, 112 
Depledge, 163 
Dering, 71 
Derrick, 81 
Derwent, 115 
Devenish, 96 
Devereux, 100 
Devey, 212 
Deville, 86 
Dew, 101 
Dexter, 18, 170 
Diamond, 9 
Dibb, 14 
Dibble, 14 
Dibden, 112 
Dick, 62 
Dickens, 20 
Dicker, 125 
Dickman, 105, 125 
Dickson, 29 
Dieudonne, 117 
Dieuleveut, 203 
Dieumegard, 203 
Diggs, 32, 63 

Dike, 125 
Dimanche, 90 
Dimond, 9 
Diplock, 197 
Diprose, 140 
Disney, 100 
Dix, 32 
Dixon, 29 
Dobb, 62 
Dobell, 94 
Dobree, 141 
Dodd, 75 
Doddridge, 109 
Dodge, 60 
Dodsley, 75 
Dodson, 62, 75, 76 
Doe, 223 
Dogood, 204 
Dolittle, 204 
Doleman, 100 
Doll, 139 
Dolley, 101 
Dollman, 100 
Dollond, 51 
Dolphin, 227 
Dombey, 212 
Donne, 106 
Doon, 80 
Double, 14 
Doubtnre, 207 
Douch, 7, 57, 98 
Doudney, 117 
Doutrepont, 104 
Dove, 220 
Dow, 57, 216 
Dowd, 75 
Dowe, 223 
Down, 75, 76, 106 
Downing, 106 
Dowson, 57 
Doyle, 101 
D'Oyley, 101 
Drake, 217 
Dreng, 145 
Drew, 53, 81 
Drewett, 53 
Drewry, 195 
Dring, 74, 145 
Drinkwater, 190 
Druce, 81, 100 
Druitt, 53, 81 
Drury, 195 
Dry, 191 
Dubois, 45 
Ducat, 145 
Duck, 144 
Duckett, 144 
Dudeney, 117 
Duff, 216, 220 
Duffus, 132 
Dufour, 134 

Duke, 144 
Duncalfe, 223 
Dunn, 75, 76, 106, 214 
Dunning, 71 
Dunnock, 219 
Dunstan, 69 
Dupont, 43 
Dupre, 45 
Dupuy, 140 
Durand, 43, 51 
Durbeyfield, 139 
Durfey, 101 
Diirr, 191 
Durrant, 81 
Durward, 180 
Dutt, 75 
Dutton, 75 
Dye, 83 
Dyer, 18, 163 
Dyke, 125 
Dyson, 32, 83 
Dyter, 18, 170 
Dyster, 170 

Eade, 75 
Eady, 60 
Eames, 193 
Earl, 5, 74, 144 
Earnshaw, 39, no 
Earwaker, 69 
Easter, 89 
Eastman, 72 
Ebbs, 75, 76, 94 
Ebbsworth, 75, 123 
Eccles, 120 
Ede, 60 
Edelstein, 55 
Eden, 60 
Edens, 94 
Edes, 75 
Edge, 126 
Edison, 60 
Edkins, 60 
Edmondstone, 108 
Edridge, 73 
Edwards, 46 
Eeles, 226 
Egg, 31 
Elder,. 1 18 
Elgar, 69 
Elgood, 71, 95 
Ellershaw, 119 
Elliott, 63, 85 
Ellis, 85 
Elmer, 72, 174 
Elphick, 72 
Elvey, 69 
Elvin, 72 
Elwin, 72 
Elwood, 109 


Ely, 81 
Emerson, 95 
Emery, 80 
Emmett, 95 
Empson, 95, 193 
England, 98, 117 
English, 96 
Ensor, 30 
Entwistle, 128 
Epps, 75, 76, 94 
Esmond, 72 
Evans, 43 
Eve, 90 

Everett, 17, 71, 124 
Evershed, 126 
Every, 80 
Ewan, 38 
Ewart, 178 
Ewens, 38 
Ewer, 186 
Eye, 117 
Eyre, 195 

Faber, 18, 105 ». 
Fabricius, 148 ». 
Facey, 34 
Failes, 141 
Fair, 152 n. 
Fairbairn, 194 
Fairburn, 194 
Faircloth, 108 
Fairclough, 108 
Fairfax, 20, 214 
Falcon, 135 
Falconer, 182 
Fall, 91 

Fallows, vi, 192 
Falstaff, 73 
Fanner, 31 
Faraday, 177 
Farebrother, 196 
Farrant, 81 
Farrar, 172 
Farthing, 202 
Faulkner, 182 
Faunt, 146 
Fauntleroy, 146 
Fawcett, 126 
Fawkes, 82 
Fay, 141 
Feare, 211 
Fearenside, 126 
Fearon, 15, 171 
Featherstonhaugh, 116 
Feaver, 18, 171 
Feaveryear, 72 n. 
Fell, 106 
Fellows, 192 
Fender, 34 
Fenimore, 36, 113 
Fennell, 128 


Fenner, 31, 177 
Fermor, 148 
Ferrers, 38, 138 
Ferrier, 172 
Ferris, 38, 61 
Ferry, 61 
Feulard, 203 
Fevyer, 18 
Fewkes, 61 
Fewster, 174 
Ffoulkes, 30 
Ffrench, 30 
Field, 104, 112 
Fiennes, 139 
Filkins, 87 
Filmer, 73 
Finn, 216 
Finnemore, 36 
Firebrace, 80 
Firminger, 20, 35, 148 
Firth, 116 
Fish, 217 
Fishwick, 123 
Fisk, 217 
Fitch, 196, 225 
Fitchett, 225 
Fitchew, 225 
Fitz, 196 
Fiveash, 141 
Flack, 114 
Fladgate, 124 
Flanner, 169 
Flaxman, 170 
Fleck, 220 
Fleet, 115 
Fleischer, 150 
Fleischmann,}..i 50 
Fleming, 120 
Fletcher, 150, 186 
Flick, 220 
Flinders, 33, 100 
Flood, 67, 115 
Flower, 169 
Flowerdew, 146 
Floyd, 67 
Foakes, 61 
Foat, 126 
Fogg, 75 
Foljambe, 212 
Folkard, 69 
Follett, 212 
Folley, 133 
Folliott, 212 
Fonblanque, 51 
Foot, 125 
Foottet, 126 
Forcett, 126 
Ford, 102, 117 
Forester, 175 
Forster, 175 
Forth, 117 


Fosbrooke, 125 
Fosdike, 125 
Fosse, 125 
Fossett, 126 
Foster, 38, 175 
Fothergill, 109 
Foulds, 105, 124 
Fowell, 24, 217 
Fowkes, 61 
Fowler, 24, 165 
Fox, 61, 225 
Foy, 141 
France, 97 
Francis, 96 
Frankham, 122 
Franklin, 145 
Freake, 210 
Frean, 141 
Free, 74 
Freebairn, 145 
Freeborn, 145 
Freeney, 141 
French, 96 
Frere, 163 
Frewin, 73 
Frick, 210 
Friend, 192 
Fripp, 40 
Frith, 116, 124 
Frobisher, 173 
Froude, 74 
Fry, 28 - 
Fryer, 163 
Fulcher, 69, 74 
Fullalove, 207 
Fuller, 170 
Furber, ^73 
Furneaux, 138 
Furner, 148 
Furn'ess, 134 
Furnival, 139 
Furze, 119 

Gabb, 88 
Gabbett, 88 
Gable, 88 
Gale, 134 
Galer, 184 
Gales, 135 
Galilee, 130 
Galley, 130 
Gallon, 33 
Galpin, 82 
Gait, 222 
Gambier, 51 
Gamble, 35 
Game, 124 
Gander, 196 
Gansauge, 227 
Ganter, 171 
Gapp, 48 


Garbett, 73 
Garden, 124 
Gardiner, 29 
Garfield, 124 
Gargery, 37 
Garibaldi, 73 
Garland, 225 
Garlick, 155, 191 
Garment, 72 
Garner, 81, 154 
Garnett, 80 
Garnham, 122, 200 
Garrard, 17, 32, 73 
Garrett, 17, 73 
Garrick, 51, 141 
Garrison, 17 
Garside, 124 
Garth, 124 
Gascoyne, 99 
Gaskell, 109 
Gaskin, 99 
Gate, 185 
Gates, 124 
Garth, 38 
Gathercole, 205 
Gathergood, 204 
Gatliff, 73 
Gatling, 32 
Gatty, 38 
Gaukroger, 60 
Gaunt, 100 
Gaunter, 171 
Gauntlett, 135 
Gavin, 79 
Gaylard, 213 
Gaylor, 184 
Gaylord, 213 
Gaynor, 79 
Geary, 79 
Gedge, 212 
Geldard, 178 
Gell, 33 
Gem, 60 
Gender, 196 
Genever, 79 
Genn, 79 
Gent, 213 
George, 61 
Gepp, 61 
German, 4 
Gerring, 80 
Gerrish, 211 
Gibbins, 62 
Gibbon, 62, 63 
Gibbs, 62 
Giblett, 12, 62 
Gibson, 62 
Gifkins, 63 
Gilbey, 62 
Gilchrist, 67 
Gildea, 67 

Gildersleeve, 199 
Gilham, 59 
Gilkes, 38 
Gill, 25, 33, 108 
Gillespie, 67 
Gillett, 63 
Gillies, 67 
Gilliver, 79 
Gilman, 59 
Gilmour, 67 
Gilpin, 62 
Gilroy, 67 
Gimson, 60 
Ginder, 196 
Ginger, 155 
Ginn, 79 
Ginner, 148 
Gipps, 32, 62 
Glaisher, 174 
Glascock, 40 
Glascott, 40 
Glass, 216 
Glasspool, 116 
Glazebrook, 36, 115 
Gleed, 221 
Glegg, 211 
Glen, 106 
Gloster, 19 
Gliick, 191 
Gluckstein, 35 
Glynn, 106 
Goad, 86 
Goater, 178 
Godbehere, 72, 203 
Godber, 72 
Goddard, 73, 178 
Godliman, 64 
Gofi, 216 
Gold, 4 
Goldberg, 55 
Goldenkrantz, 55 
Golding, 39 
Goldmann, 55 
Goldsmith, 15, 54 
Goldwin, 39 
Golightly, 206 
Gooch, 216 
Good, 4, 74 
Goodacre, 112 
Goodair, 72 
Goodale, 156 
Goodbairn, 194 
Goodban, 194 
Goodbeer, 72, 156 
Goodburn, 194 
Goodchild, 36, 74 
Goodday, 191 
Goodenough, 106 
Goodeve, 69, 70 
Goodfellow, 190, 196 
Goodhart, 12 

Goodhew, 60 
Goodhue, 60 
Goodier, 72 
Gooding, 39 
Goodlake, 32, 69 
Goodliffe, 73, 108 
Goodluck, 69, 197 
Goodman, 64 
Goodrich, 60, 70 
Goodrick, 60 
Goodson, 196 
Goodwin, 39 
Goodyear, 72 
Gore, 113 
Gorman, 72 
Gorst, 10, 119 
Gosling, 10, 32 
Goss, 10 
Gosselin, 10 
Gosset, 10 
Gossip, 196 
Gotobed, 72, 206 
Gott, 129 
Gottbehut, 203 
Gotthelf, 203 
Gough, 48, 116 
Goujon, 226 
Gow, 173 
Grace, 119, 212 
Gracedieu, 203 
Graindorge, 207 
Grammer, 155 
Grange, 132 
Granger, 132 
Grant, 66, 212 
Granville, 139 
Grattepaille, 206 
Graves, no 
Gray, 225 
Grayson, 147 
Grazebrook, 36 
Greatorex, 109 
Greaves, no 
Green, 45 
Greenall, ri6, 
Greenaway, 35, 128 
Greenfield, 139 
Greenhalgh, 116 
Greenhow, 106 
Greenidge, 123 
Greening, 117 
Greenish, 39 
Greenman, 132 
Greenstreet, 120 
Gregson, 57 
Grenfell, 106 
Grenville, 139 
Greville, 139 
Grew, 2^0 
Grice, 222 
Grier, 57 


Grieve, 181 
Grieves, 147 
Griffin, 217 
Grimes, 74 
Grimsdick, 125 
Grimwade, 117 
Grindrod, 35, nr 
Groser, 151 
Gross, 213 
GrossetSte, 126 
Grossmith, 44 
Grosvenor, 185 
Grote, 213 
Grove, no 
Grubbe, 50 
Grundy, 37, 69 
Gubbins, 124 n. 
Gudgeon, 226 
Guest, 192. 
Gulliver, 79 
Gundry, 37, 69 
Gunn, 74 
Gunnell, 73 
Gunner, 73 
Gunning, 39, 7r 
Gunston, 123 
Gunter, 72 
Gunwin, 39 
Gurney, 138 
Gutbier, 156 
Gutch, 116 
Gutentag, 191 
Guthrie, 7 
Gutjahr, 72 
Gutteridge, 70 
Gwynne, 15, 216 

Hack, 74, in 
Hackett, 74 
Hacking, in 
Haddock, 226 
Haggard, 81, 221 
Haggett, 81 
Haig, 21, 124 
Haigh, 21, 124 
Hailstone, 108 
Haines, 73 
Hake, 226 
Haldane, 73 
Hale, 21, 45, 116 
Hales, 21, 45 
Halfpenny, 202 
Hall, 4, 21, 45, 131 
Hallett, 37 
Halliday, 89 
Halliwell, 129 
Hallmark, 202 
Halse, 119 
Halsey, 119 
Ham, 122 
Hamblin, 35 


Hambro, 100 
Hamburg, 55 
Hamlet, 12, 37, 62 
Hamlin, 35 
Hammant, 35 
Hammond, 35, 74 
Hamnett, 36 
Hamper, 173 
Hampshire, 98 
Hancock, 2 
Hand, 3 
Hands, 3 
Handyside, 126 
Hann, 3 
Hannibal, 82 
Hanrott, 38 
Hansell, 39 
Hansom, 3, 36, 101 
Hanson, 3, 36 
Hanway, 100 
Harbord, 32 
Harbottle, 133 
Harcourt, 139 
Hardaker, 112 
Harding, 39 
Hardisty, 124 
Hardwin, 39 
Hargreave, 1 10 
Harlow, 107 
Harman, 64, 72 
Harmsworth, 123 
Harness, 81 
Harnett, 14, 38 
Harold, 69 
Harrap, 108 
Harris, 38, 46 
Harrison, 38, 47 
Harrod, 69 
Hart, 54, 135 
Hartopp, 108 
Harvard, 72 
Harvest, 90 
Harvey, 57 
Harward, 72, 180 
Harwood, 109 
Hasler, 185 
Hasluck, 204 
Hastings, 73 
Hatch, 124 
Hatchard, 81 
Hatchett, 81, 124 
Hathaway, 35, 128 
Hatt, 135 
Hatton, 136 
Haupt, 126 
Havelock, 69 
Haw, 124 
Haward, 180 
Haweis, 94 
Hawes, 21, 116, 124 
Hawke, 218 


Hawker, 182 
Hawkes, 38, 63 
Hawkins, 37, 63 
Hawley, 104 
Hawtrey, 138 
Hay, 21, 124 
Haybittle, 180 
Haycock, 124 
Haycraft, 123 
Hayday, 89 
Hayes, 21, 105, 124 
Hay man, 180 
Hay ward, 180' 
Haywood, 109 
Hazel, 119 
Hazelrigg, 109 
Hazeldean, 112 
Hazlitt, 126 
Head, 25, 125 
Heal, 116 
Healey, 82 
Heard, 32 
Hearne, 127 
Hearnshaw, 39, no, 

Heaven, 38 
Heaviside, 126 
Hebblethwaite, 112 
Hedgcock, 124 
Hedge, 21, 124 
Hedgecoe, 218 
Hedges, 21 
Hellier, 173 
Hemming, 71 
Henderson, 35 
Hendry, 34 
Hendy, 211 
Henery, 34 
Henfrey, 82 
Hensman, 186 
Henson, 35 
Henty, 211 
Herald, 69, 185 
Herbert, 73 
Herd, 32 
Hermitage, 130 
Heme, 127, 219 
Heron, 219 
Herrick, 73 
Herries, 12 
Herring, 227 
Hertslet, 112 
Heseltine, 112 
Heslop, 108 
Hester, 89 
Hew, 59 
Hewens, 38 
Hewett, 59 
Hewlett, 59, 62 
Hexter, 38 
Hey, 124 


Hibbert, 73, 74 
Hick, 62 
Hickman, 3, 64 
Hickmott, 195 
Hide, 125 

Higginbottom, 77, 114 
Higgs, 63 
Hildyard, 73 
Hill, 23, 45, 96, 106 
Hillard, 173 
Hillman, 105 
Hilly ard, 173 
Hillyer, 173 
Hind, 35, 177, 223 
Hine, 35, 177 
Hinks, 222 
Hinxman, 186 
Hird, 32 
Hirsch, 55 
Hirst, no 
Hitch, 63 
Hitchcock, 65 
Hoar, 214 
Hobart, 73 

Hobbs, 24, 32, 35, 62 
Hobday, 89 
Hobson, 24 
Hockaday,' 89 
Hockin, 37 
Hodder, 21 
Hodge, 60 
Hodson, 62 
Hoe, 116 
Hogarth, 124 
Hogg, 190, 222 
Hoggart, 178 
Hogsflesh, 157 
Holbrook, 115 
Holder, 146 
Hole, 109 
Holiday, 89 
Holinshed, 118 
Holl, 109 
Holland, 98 
Holliman, 6, 197 
Hollings, 118 
Hollingshead, 118 
Hollins, 118 
Hollis, 118 
Holliwell, 129 
Hollowell, 129 
Holm, 117 
Holman, 9, 117 
Holmer, 117 
Holmes, 117, 118 
Holt, 109 
Holtum, 122 
Holyland, 98 
Holyoak, 61 
Homan, 64, 116 
Homburger, 55 

Home, 38, 117 
Homer, 83, 117 
Homewood, 118 
Hone, 108 
Honeyball, 76, 82 
Hoo, 116 
Hood, 198 
Hook, 116 
Hooker, 116 
Hoole, 109 
Hooman, 116 
Hope, 108 
Hopkins, 24, 35, 62 
Hopper, 165 
Hopps, 32, 35, 62 
Horlock, 198, 2r4 
Home, 135 
Horner, 169 
Horniblow, 205 
Horniman, 35 
Horridge, 39 
Hose, I3r 
Hoskins, 38 
Hostler, 165 
Houchin, 59 
Hough, 106 
House, 9, 97, 131 
How, 9, 59, 106 
Howard, 180 
Howes, 9 
Howitt, 59 
Howlett, 59, 221 
Hoyle, 109 
Hozier, I7r 
Hubbard, 73 
Hudson, 3, 75 
Huggins, 59 
Hughes, '46 
Huish, 125 
Hull, 23, 106 
Hulme, 117 
Hume, 117 
Humfrey, 60 
Hunt, 148 
Hunter, 149 
Hurd, 32 
Hurlbatt, 204 
Hum, 127 
Hurst, no 
Husband, 177 
Hussey, 141 
Hustler, 165 
Hutchins, 59 
Hutson, 35 
Huxtable, 123 
Hyatt, 124 
Hyde, 125 

Ibbott, 94 
Ibbotson, 94 

Iddins, 94 
Iddison, 94 
Ide, 94 
Iden, 94 
Image, 135 
Imray, 80 
Ind, 126 
Ing, 117 
Ingall, 117 
Inge, 75, 117 
Ingle, 117 
Inglis, 96 
Ingoldby, 117 
Ingram, 73, 82 
Ings, 117 
Inkpen, 135 
Inman, 165 
Inward, 28 
Inwood, 28 
Ireland, 24, 97 
Iremonger, 170 . 
Ironmonger, 170 
Isard, 79 
Isemonger, 170 
Isitt, 79 
Ivatts, 80 
Ives, 80 
Ivimey, 196 
Ivison, 80 
Ivory, 80 
Izod, 79 
Izzard, 79 

Jackson, 47 
Jaggard, 182 
J agger, 182 
J ago, 60 
Jalland, 33 
James, 46 
Janaway, 100 
Janes, 100 
Janvier, 91 
Janways, 100 
Jardine, 29 
Jarman, 4 
Jarrold, 32, 73 
Jarvis, 32, 87 
Jeakes, 60 
Jebb, 61 
Jeffcock, 40 
Jeffcott, 29, 40 
Jellicoe, 37 
Jemmett, 60 
Jenkins, 38 
Jenks, 38 
Jenner, 33, 148 
Jennifer, 79 
Jennings, 25, 35, 63 
Jenoure, 33, 148 
Jephcott, 29, 
Jepson, 61 



Jermyn, 4 
Jemingham, 122 
Jerram, 87 
Jessop, 85 
Jewett, 25 
Jewhurst, 125 
Jewsbury, 125 
J ex, 60 
Jinks, 38 
Jobling, 71, 85 
Jobson, 85 
Johnson, 25, 47 
Johnston, 108 
Jolland, 33 
Jolliffe, 212 
Jones, 25 
Jordan, 58 
Joslin, 32 
Jowett, 25 
Joy, 25 
Joyce, 94 
Jubb, 32 
Judd, 58 
Judge, 184 
Judkins, 58 
Judson, 58, 184 
Jukes, 38, 58 
Jull, 33 
Junior, 145 
Juniper, 79 
Jupp, 32, 85 
Jury, 125 
Justice, 184 
Juxon, 184 

Kain, 85 
Kaines, 141 
Kalbfleisch, 157 
Karslake, 37 
Katt, 224 
Kay, 79 
Reach, 25 
Keble, 69 n. 
Kedge, 212 
Keep, 132 
Kell, 74 
Kelsey, 74 
Kemble, 69 
Kemp, 74, 149 
Kempster, 170 . 
Ken, 224 " . 

Kennard, 72 
Kennedy, 216 
Kennett, 224 
Kenney, 141 
Kenrick, 73 
Kerr, 113, 224 
Ketch, 25, 212 
Kettle, 74 
Kew, 5 


Key, 79, 129, 136 
Keylock, 129 
Keynes, 141 n. 
Keys, 79 
Kibbles, 69 n. 
Kiddell, 144 
Kidder, 181 
Kiddier, 181 
Kidger, 148 
Kidney, 200 
Killick, 123 
Killip, 66 
Kilner, 25, 164 
Kimball, 69 
Kimber, 170 
King, si, 47, 144 
Kingdom, 106 
Kingdon, 106 
Kingscote, 133 
Kingson, 146 
Kingston, 146 
Kipping, 71 
Kipps, 32 
Kirk, 32 
Kirkbride, 88 
Kirker, 131 
Kirkman, 131 
Kirkus, 132 
Kisser, 152 
Kitchin, 134 
Kitching, 35 
Kite, 74 
Kitson, 95 
Kittermaster, 120 
Knapp, 107 
Knapper, 107 
Knatchbull, 206 
Knight, 145 
Knoblauch, 155, 191 
Knock, 107 
Knocker, 107 
Knollys, 29, 107 
Knott, 16, 30, 107, 

108, 219 
Knowler, 167 
Knowles, 29, 107 
Knowlson, 30 
Knox, 108 
Kopf, 126 
Krummbein, 211 

Labiche, 223 
Labouchere, 149 
Lacey, 4 
Lack, 116 
Lade, 129 
Ladyman, 64 
Laird, 145 
Lake, 104, 1.16. ,.'. 
Lakeman, 64 
Lamb, 63 ». 2, 135 


Lambard, ioo 
Lambert, 73, 74 
Lambie, 63 
Lammas, 89 
Lammiter, 201 
La Monnaie, 165 
Lamoureux, 191 
Lamprey, 226 
Lance, 79 
Lancelot, 79 
Lander, 186 
Laner, 170 
Lang, 31 

Langbain, 13S n. 
Langlois, 96 
Langtoft, 108 
Langworthy, 123 
Lankester, 97 
Lankshear, 99 
Lanyon, 67 
Lardner, 186 
Larkin, 58 
Larned, 32, 191 
Larpent, 12 
Lasalle, 45, 131 
Lateward, 180 
Latham, 132 
Latimer, 172 
Latner, 172 
Launder, 186 
Lavender, 186 
Law, 58, 107 
Lawless, 198 
Lawman, 64 
Lawrie, 225 
Lawson, 58 
Lay, 28, 58 
Layard, 51 
Laycock, 58 
Layman, 64 
Lea, 28 
Leach, 163 
Leadbeater, 173 
Leadbitter, 173 
Leader, 178 
Leaf, 74, 211 
Leaper, 152, 165 
Learoyd, in 
Leatham, 132 
Leather, 107 
Leatherbarrow, 107 
Leathes, 132 
Lebceuf, 223 
Lechien, 224 
Ledger, 81 
Lediard, 81 
Ledieu, 8(5 
Lee, 28, 45, 54, 102 
Leech, 163 
Leete, 129 
Lefanu, 51 


Lefilleul, 196 
Lefroy, 51 
Leggatt, 166 
Legge, 28, 81 
Legh, 28 
Lehideux, 191 
Leicester, 19 
Leif, 74 
Leif child, 71 
Leigh, 28 
Lekain. 224 
Lemaitre, 12 
Leman, 194 
Lemon, 73, 194 
Lempriere, 144 
Lenain, 210 
Lennard, 221 
Lent, 90 
Leppard, 217 
Lequeux, 5 
Lequien, 224 
Lermitte, 167 
Lesec, igi 
Lesley, 6 
Lester, 19 
Lestrange, 12 
Lesturgeon, 226 
Lesueur, 151 
Letellier, 45 
Letts, 94 
Lettson, 94 
Lever, 223 
Leverett, 223 
Leveridge, 73 
Leverson, 223 
Lcveson, 223 
Levick, 33, 144 
Levrault, 223 
Lewes, 46 
Lewin, 72 
Lewis, 46, 54 
Ley, 28 
Liberty, 123 
Lidgate, 124 
Lidgett, 124 
Lidley, 51 
Liebevoll, 207 
Light, 210 
Lightfoot, 126 
Lightwood, 210 
Ligonier, 51 
Lilburne, 6 
Lilienfeld, 55 
Lilley, 136 
Lilly white, 81 
Linacre, 112 
Lind, 118 
Lindley, 118 
Lines, 118 
Ling, 119 
Linnell, 79 

Lister, 166, 170 
Little, 210 
Littleboy, 191 
Littlechild, 195 
Littler air, 193 
Littlejohn, 59 
Littlepage, 93 
Littleproud, 123 
Littleworth, 123 
Littre, 32 
Livingston, 108 
Lloyd, 48, 216 
Loader, 178 
Lock, 129 
Lockhart, 7 
Lockyer, 148 
Locock, 58 
Lodge, 133 
Loftus, 132 
Lombard, 100 
Loney, 34 
Long, 2 
Longfellow, 101 
Longman, 64 
Longstaff, 198 
Looker, 179 
Lord, 145 

Lorimer, 172 

Loriner, 172 

Loring, 100 

Lorkin, 58 

Love, 197 

Loveday, 89 

Lovejoy, 204 

Lovelace, 198 

Loveless, 198 

Lovell, 197 

Lovelock, 198 

Lover, 191 

Loveridge, 73 

Lovett, 197 

Lovibond, 198 

Loving, 100 

Low, 17, 58, 107 

Lowe, 54 

Lowe, 55 

Lowell, 197 

Lowndes, 113 

Lowrie, 225 

Lowson, 58 

Luard, 51 

Lubbock, 100 

Lucas, 87 

Luck, 87, 00, lgr 

Luckett, 87 

Luckner, 100 

Lucock, 87 

Luff, 197 

Lufkin, 197 

Lugard, 73 

Luker, 179 
Lund, 113 
Lunn, u 3 
Lush, 185 
Lusher, 184 
Lusk, 192 
Luter, 224 
Lutterer, 224 
Luttrel, 223 
Lye, 28 
Lyell, 79 
Lynch, 127 
Lyndhurst, 118 
Lynes, 118 
Lynn, 106 
Lyon, 135 
Lyons, 54 
Lyte, 210 

Mabbs, 3 
Macey, 59 
Machin, 59 
Macllroy, 67 
Mackenzie, 29 
Maclean, 67 
Macnab, 66 
Macpherson, 66 
Maddox, 78 
Maggot, 93 
Mahood, 93 
Maidment, 7s 
Mainprice, 185 
Mainwaring, 27, 42, 142 
Mair, 184 
Major, 184 
Makepeace, 204 
Makins, 86 
Malapert, 191 
Malcolm, 67 
Malesherbes, 119 
Malherbe, 119 
Malins, 100 
Malleson, 37, 93 
Malpas, 121 
Malthus, 132 
Maltravers, 121 
Mangles, 69 
Mann, 64, 177, 192 
Mannering, 30, 142 
Manning, 71 
Mansell, 99 
Manser, 82 
Manton, 4 
Maple, 119 
Mapleson, 3 
Mappin, 3 
Mapple, 119 
March, 86, 90 
Marchant, 23, 32. i fi 3 
Marchbanks, 30 
Margetts, 93 


Marillier, 167 
Marner, 164 
Marratt, 23 
Marriage, 197 
Marriott, 63 
Marris, 113 
Marrott, 23, 93 
Marryat, 63 
Mars, 91 
Marsh, 104, 113 
Marshall, 45, 183 
Martin, 46 
Martineau, 51 
Martyr, 86 
Mash, 38 
Maskell, 183 
Mason, 86 
Massie, 59 

Massinger, 20, 35, 18, 
Masson, 59 
Master, 192 
Masterman, 192 
Masters, 12, 192 
Mather, 177 
Matheson, 86 
Mattison, 95 
Maud, 93 
Mauger, 184 
Mauleverer, 139 
Maunder, 187 
Mawer, 177 
Mawson, 24, 93 
May, 65, 86, 90, 195 
Maycock, 65 
Mayes, 86 
Mayhew, 86 
Maynard, 73 
Mayne, 99* 
Mayo, 86 
Mayor, 184 
Mayston, 99 
Meacock, 65 
Mead, 112 
Meadowcroft, 124 
Meadows, 104 
Meakin, 86 
Mears, 12, 104, 116 
Meaty ard, 136 
Medd, 112 
Medley, 198 
Medlicott, rg8 
Medward, 180 
Medway, 115 
Mee, 65, 86 
Mees, 142 
Meese, 142 
Meeson, 86 
Meggitt, 93 
Meiklejohn, 59 
Melancthon, 150 ». 
Meller, 164 


Mellers, 147 
Mellor, 25, 164 
Mellsop, 195 
Melton, 3r 
Melville, 139 
Menzies, 29 
Mercator, 148 n. 
Mercer, r6g 
Merrick, 33 
Merrill, 215 ». 1 
Merryweather, 191 
Messer, 177 
Metcalf, 223 
Metzger, 150 
Mew, 134 
Mewer, 150 
Mews, 134 
Meyer, 43 
Meynell, 142 
Miall, 88 
Mickle, 46, 210 
Middlemas, 40, 89 
Midwinter, 23, 89 
Mildmay, 195 
Miles, 80 
MU1, 80 

Millard, 39, 180 
Miller, 25 
Millett, 80 
Milne, 25 
Milner, 25, 164 
Milsom, 36 
Milson, 36 
Milton, 3r 
Milward, 180 
Minet, 50 
Minister, 35, 120 
Minter, 173 
Mitchell, 46, 88 
Moate, 125 
Mobbs, 3 
Mollison, i7, 93 
Molyneux, 12 
Momerie, 12 
Mompesson, 139 
Money, 165 
Moneypenny, 201 
Monier, 173 
Monk, 163 
Monks, 147 
Monkton, 123 
Montmorency, 139 
Montresor, 139 
Moody, 208 
Moodyman, 5 
Moon, 165 
Moore, 2, 45, 98, 113 

Moorman, 113 
Morant, 81 
Mordaunt, 212 


Mordue, 203 
Morel, 215 
Morgan, 46 
Morley, 101 
Morris, 46, 93, 98 
Morrison, 93 
Morrow, 90 
Morshead, 126 
Mortimer, 139 
Mortlock, 197 
Moss, 85, ir3 
Mossman, 113 
Motley, 198 
Mott, 93, 125 
Mould, 93 
Moule, 93 
Mowbray, 12, 139 
Moxon, 93 
Moyes, 85 
Muddiman, 5 
Mudie, 208 
Miihsam, 207 
Muir, 113, 150 
Muirhead, 113 
Mulholland, 67 
Miiller, 43 
Mullett, 136 
Mulliner, 178 
Mullins, 12, 132 
Mummery, 12 
Munday, 89 
Munn, 34, 165 
Murch, 210 
Murgatroyd, 48, 111 
Murray, 215 
Murrell, 215 
Mushet, 221 
Muskett, 221 
Musson, 219 
Musters, 131 
Mutch, 210 
Mutton, 157, 223 
Myers, 54, 104 

Nabbs, 62, 84 
Nalder, 34 
Nangle, 34 
Napier, 6, 186 
Napper, 173 
Nash, 34, 105 
Nasmyth, 44 
Naylor, 44, 153 
Neal, 79 
Neame, 82, 193 
Neander, 150 n. 
Neate, 88 
Neave, 194 
Neil, 79 
Neild, 35 
Neilson, 26 
Neish, 212 


Nelms, 34 
Nelson, 26, 95 
Nend, 34 
Nethersole, 116 
Nettlefold, 105, 124 
Nevill, 138 
Nevinson, 194 
Nevison, 194 
Newall, 39 
Newbigging, 21, 133 
Newbolt, 133 
Newbould, 133 
Newcomb, 22, 106 
Newhouse, 21 
Newman, 22 
Newnham, 122 
Nightgall, 12 
Nightingale, 218 
Nind, 34, 126 
Nobbs, 62 
Nock, 34 
Noel, 89 
Nokes, 34, 105 
Noon, 90 
Norcott, 133 
Norgate, 128 
Norman, 97 
Norris, 20, 97, 185 
Norwood, 109 
Nott, 16, 30, 108, 210 
Nowell, 89 
Nugent, 138 
Nunn, 74, 162 
Nurse, 20, 185 
Nutt, 108 
Nutter, 178 
Nye, 34, 117 

Oak, 118 
Oakley, 103 
Oakshott, no, 165 
Oates, 63, 79 
Oddy', 63 
Odgers, 80 
Offer, 15 
Ogden, 118 
Oliphant, 217 
Oliver, 79 
Oilier, 80 
Olver, 80 
Onion, 48, 67 
Onions, 67 
Orbell, 81 
Orchardson, 125 
Orme, 71 
Ormerod, in 
Osbert, 69 
Osborne, 4, 69 
Oscroft, 124 
Osgood, 69 
Osier, 165 

Otter, 74 
Otterburn, 116 
Otto way, 128 
Otway, 128 
Ovens, 134 
Over, 116 
Overall, 116 
Overbury, 116 
Overend, 116, 126 
Overland, 116 

Pace, 89 
Pack, 89 
Packard, 33 
Packer, 23 
Packman, 182 
Padgett, 89, 93 
Paget, 93 
Painblanc, 156 
Painchaud, 156 
Painleve, 156 
Paintendre, 156 
Pakeman, 182 
Palairet, 51 
Palliser, 181 
Pallister, 181 
Palmer, 15, 167 
Palsgrave, 145 
Pancoast, 89 
Pankhurst, 89 
Pankridge, 109 
Pannell, 4, 38 
Panter, 186 
Pan tier, 186 
Paramore, 194 
Pardoe, 203 
Pardon, 163 
Parfitt, 29 
Pargeter, 175 
Paris, 15 
Parish, 15, 123 
Park, 32 
Parker, 23, 181 
Parkins, 32 
Parkinson, 6 
Parkman, 105 
Parks, 32 

Parmenter, 44, 170 
Parminter, 171 
Parmiter, 171 
Parnell, 94 
Parr, 32 
Parris, 15 
Parrott, 32 
Parry, 32, 38 
Parsons, 147 
Partout, 191 
Pascall, 89 
Pascoe, 89 
Pash, 89 
Pask, 89 



Patch, 89, 187 
Patchett, 89 
Paternoster, 155 
Paterson, 38 
Paton, 38, 6$ 
Pattison, 38 
Pauncefote, 201 
Pawling, 87 
Pawson, 87 
Paxman, 182 
Paxon, 182 
Paxton, 182 
Pay, 218 
Payn, 4 
Peach, 107 
Peacock, 21, 135 
Peake, 20, 107 
Pearce, 10, 29 
Pears, 10 
Pearse, 29 
Pearson, 10 
Peart, 208 
Pease, 155 
Peck, 20, 107 
Pedder, 181 
Peel, 132 
Pegg, 93 
Peggs, 93 
Pegram, 167 
Pell, 37 
Pellew, 139 
Pender, 181 
Penfold, 124, 135 
Penkridge, 109 
Penn, 135 
Pennefather, 194 
Pennell, 4, 38 
Penner, 181 
Penninger, 185 
Penny, 202 
Penrose, 67 
Penruddock, 67 
Penry, 38 
Pentecost, 89 
Pepper, 20, 36, 155 
Peppercorn, 207 
Pepperell, 207 
Peppiatt, 29 
Peppitt, 29 
Pepys, 29 
Percy, 6, 138 
Perkins, 32, 63 
Perks, 32, 38, 63 
Perowne, 51, 60 
Perrett, 126 
Perrier, 22 
Perrott, 32, 63 
Perry, 32, 142 
Pescod, 155 
Peskett, 155 
Petch, 107 

Petitgas, 191 
Peto, 99 
Pett, 127 
Pettifer, 201 
Pettigrew, 201 
Pettingall, 33, 97 
Pettinger, 33 
Pettman, 127 
Peverell, 207 
Pew, 140 
Phelps, 87 
Philbrick, 31 
Phillimore, 36 
Phillips, 46 
Philp, 87 
Philpot, 62, 87 
Phipps, 87 
Physick, 123 
Pick, 20, 107, 219 
Pickard, 99 
Pickbourne, 107 
Pickersgill, 109 
Pickett, 107 
Pickford, 107 
Pickles, 39 
Pickwick, 107 
Pied-de-Lievre, 227 
Piedeleu, 227 
Piedoie, 227 
Pierpoint, 138 
Piggott, 107 
Pike, 20, 107, 226 
Pilchard, 227 
Pilcher, 171 
Pilgrim, 167 
Filler, 131 
Pillman, 132 
Pillsbury, 40 
Pirn, 94 
Pinch, 136 «. 2 
Pinches, 136 ». 2 
Pinchin, 136 ». 2 
Finder, 181 
Pinfold, 124, 135 
Pink, 40 
Pinner, 172, 181 
Pinnock, 219 
Pipkin, 29 
.Pirie, 119, 142 
Pitman, 174 
Pitt, 127 
Place, 131 
Plaice, 131 
Plaistow, 122 
Piatt, 104, 113 
Platts, 104 
Playfair, 193 
Plays ted, 122 
Plimsoll, 51 
Plowman, 163 
Plumb, 35 

Plummer, 153 
Plumptre, 97 
Pobgee, 135, 220 
Pochin, vi 
Pockett, 222 
Pocock, 21, 218 
Poe, 21, 218 
Pogson, 93 
Poidevin, 99 
Poincare, 200 
Poindexter, 200 
Poingdestre, 200 
Poitevin, 9 
Pole, 99, 116 
Pollard, 223 
Pollock, 99 
Polwarth, 67 
Pomeroy, n, 142 
Pomfret, 15 
Pond, 116, 135 
Ponder, 181 
Pontifex, 105 
Pool, 12, 104, 116 
Pooley, 116 
Poorgrass, 119 
Pope, 144 
Popjoy, 135, 220 
Popkin, 62 
Poppleton, 118 
Popplewell, 118 
Porch, 131 
Porcher, 131 
Porker, 23 
Porson, 87 
Port, 129 
Portal, 131 
Portch, 131 
Porteous, 136 
Portwine, 9 
Posnett, 30 
Postill, 86 
Postlethwaite, 112 
Pothecary, 176 
Pott, 34 

Pottinger, 33, 35, 176 
Potts, 34, 62 
Poulter, 15 
Poulton, 4, 116 
Pound, 97, 116, 135 
Povey, 221 
Powell, 66, 87 
Power, 99, 212 
Powles, 87 
Poynder, 181 
Poynter, 172 
Poyntz, 136 ». 2, 142 
Poyser, 173 
Prall, 141 
Pratt, 212 
Prawle, 141 
Precious, 94 


Preece, 141 
Premier, 213 
Prentice, 33 
Press, 162 
Prest, 162 
Prestage, 123 
Preston, 123 
Price, 46, 88 
Prickett, 216 
Pridham, 122 
Priestman, 64 
Prime, 213 
Pring, 213 
Pritchard, 66 
Probyn, 41, 62, 66 
Prothero, 66 
Proud, 32, 213 
Prout, 32, 213 
Pro vis, 131 
Prowse, 213 
Prust, vi 
Prynne, 213 
Puddifin, 99 
Puddifoot, 48, 201 
Pugh', 62 
Pull, 116 
Pullen, vi 
Pullinger, 32 
Pullman, 64 
Punch, 136 ». 2 
Punshon, 136 ». 2 
Purcell, 222 
Purdey, 203 
Purdue, 203 
Purkiss, 32 
Purnell, 94 
Purser, 186 
Purvis, 131 
Putnam, 31 
Puttock, 74, 221 
Pyatt, 218 
Pye, 218 

Quaife, 198 
Quartermain, 200 
Quatrefages, 141 
Quatresous, 202 
Quelch, 19 
Quennell, 93 n. 
Quicke, 210 
Quiller, 171 
Quilliam, 66 
Quint, an 
Quodling, 12 

Racine, 204 
Rackstraw, 206 
Radcliffe, 108 
Radley, 104 
Rae, 223 
Ragg, 77 


Raggett, 77 
Raikes, 109 
Rainbird, 218 
Rainbow, 218 
Ralph, 22, 63, 70 
Ram, 135 
Ramage, 221 
Ramsbottom, no «. 
Ramsden, no ». 
Ranee, 3, 22 
Rand, 3, 22 
Randall, 22 
Rands, 3, 22 
Rankin, 22, 63 
Rann, 3, 22 
Ransom, 36 
Ranson, 36 
Raper, 31 
Raven, 135 
Rawlin, 63 
Rawnsley, 104 
Rawson, 22 
Ray, 30, 223 
Rayment, 72 
Raymond, 72 
Rayner, 73 
Raynes, 100 
Read, 74, 214 
Reader, 153 
Record, 123 
Redd, 214 
Redgrave, no 
Redhead, 107 
Redknap, 107 
Redmond, 72 
Reece, 29 
Reed, 74, 214 
Reeder, 153 
Rees, 29 
Reeve, 164, 181 
Reeves, 147 
Reid, 74, 214 
Relf, 22, 63, 70 
Renard, 225 
Rennie, 66 
Renshaw, no 
Reuter, 158 
Reynell, 80 
Reynolds, 73, 74, 80 
Rhodes, 104, 127 
Rice, 156 
Rich, 63 
Richer, 82 
Richmond, 121 
Rick, 62, 74 
Ricketts, 63 
Ridding, 111 
Rider, 158 
Ridge, 109 
Ridler, 177 
Ridley, 104 

Rigg, 31, 109 
Rigmaideu, 195 
Rimmer, 187 
Riou, 51 
Ritchie * 63 
Rivers, 104, 115 
Roach, 140, 227 
Roadnight, 145 
Roads, 127 
Roan, 100 
Robb, 62 . 
Roberts, 46 
Robinson, 43, 47 
Robison, 38 
Rochford, 139 
Rodd, 74, in 
Roe, 216, 223 
Roebuck, 135 
Roff, 22, 70 
Rogers, 46 
Roker, 185 
Rolfe, 22, 63 
Roller, 154 
Rollit, 79 
Rolls, 22, 79 
Romer, 167 
Romilly, 51 
Rood, in 
Rose, 136 
Rosenberg, 55 
Rosevear, 67 
Rossiter, 99 
Rothschild, 135 
Roundhay, 105 
Rouse, 9, 21 
Rousseau, 21 
Rowbotham, 114 
Rowe, 8, 79, 128 
Rowlinson, 79 
Rowntree, 118 
Rowsell, 214 
Roy, 216 
Royce, 94 
Royds, in 
Royle, 33 
Rubinstein, 55 
Rudd, 74, 214 
Ruddock, 214 
Rudge, 214 
Rumball, 71 
Rumbold, 71, 72 
Runciman, 64 
Rush, 21, 99, 214 
Russ, 21, 99, 214 
Russell, 21, 214 
Rutter, 158 
Rycroft, 124 

Ryle, 33 
Rymer, 187 

Sacheverell, 156 n, 



Saokville, 139 
Sacristan, 166 
Sadd, 209 
Saint, 86 
St. Maur, 10 1 
Sale, 4, 131 i 
Salisbury, 36 
Sallows, 118J 
Salmon, 54,^85, 227 
Salt, 156 
Salter, 155 
Salvage, 211 
Samson, 85 
Sanctuary, 130 
Sandeman, 64 
Sanders, 62 
Sandys, 29 
Sanger, 166 
Sangster, 166 
Sansom, 36 
Sanson, 36 
Sargent, 32, 163, 183 
Sarkander, 150 ». 
Sarson, 98 
Sartorius, 105 «. 
Satterthwaite, 112 
Saucer, 176 
Saul, 4 

Saunders, 62, 82 
Savage, 211 
Savory, 119 
Sawyer, 148 J 
Saxon, 98 
Saxton, 167 
Sayce, 216 
Sayer, 73 ». 
Sayers, 12, 73 
Saylor, 164 
Saynor, 145 
Scales, 133 
Scammell, 134 
Scattergood, 204 
Schlechter, 150 
Schneidewind, 205 
Schofield, 112 
Schulze, 43 
Schiittespeer, 191 
Sclater, 29 
Scoggins, in 
Scorer, 152 
Scotland, 24 
Scott, 24, 96 
Scrimgeour, 175 
Scriven, 172 
Scrivener, 172 
Scroggins, in 
Scroggs, in 
Scrabbs, in 
Scutt, 222 
Seabright, 73 
Seafowl, 75 

.Seal, 131 
Seaman, 71, 164 
Seamer, 10, 44, 170 
Searle, 74 
Seeker, 170 
Secretan, 167 
Seeley, 209 
Seely, 209 
Segar, 12 
Selfe, 40 
Selig, 55 
Selinger, 34 
Sellar, 155, 175 
Sellars, 29 
Semark, 34 
Semple, 34 
Senior, 145 
Sentry, 131 
Sessions, 100 
Setter, 153 
Severn, 115 
Seward, 73, 178 
Sewell, 73 
Sewer, 150 
Sexton, 167 
Seymour, 10, 34 
Shacklock, 206 
Shafto, 107 
Shakeshaft, 204 
Shakespeare, 191, 204 
Shannon, 165 
Shapster, 44, 170 
Sharp, 47 
Shaw, 45, no 
Shaylor, 200 
Shearer, 170 
Shearman, 170 
Shears, 136 
Shearsmith, 44 
Sheldrick, 218 
Shepard, 39 
Shepherd, 178 
Sheppard, 39 
Sherlock, 206 
Sherman, 170 
Sherrard, 109 
Sherratt, 109 
Sherriff, 162 
Sherwin, 205 
Shilling, 202 
Shipman, 164 
Shipp, 136 
Shipway, 128 
Shoosmith, 44 
Shoppee, 53 
Shore, 116, 129, 151 
Shorthouse, 198 
Shott, 222 
Shovel, 213 
Showier, 178 
Shrubb, in 

Shumebotham, 114 
Shurety, 185 
Shurlock, 206 
Shute, 128 
Shuttleworth, 123 
Sibbs, 75, 76 
Sibley, 94 
Sickelmore, 119 
Siddons, 94 
Sidney, 34 
Siggers, 69 
Siggins, 82 
Siggs, 75 
Silburn, 209 
Silley, 209 
Sillifant, 209 
Silverlock, 198 
Simcox, 65 
Simister, 149 
Simmonds, 35, 74 
Simnel, 156 
Simons, 2, 29 
Simper, 34 
Simpson, 26, 35 
Sims, 26 
Sinclair, 34 
Sisley, 88 
Sisson, 63 
Sivier, 177 
Sixdenier, 202 
Skey, 211 
Skrimshire, 175 
Slack, 113 
Slade, 112 
Slagg, 113 
Slater, 29 
Slatter, 29 
Slayer, 153 
Sleigh, 210 
Slight, 210 
Slipper, vi 
Slocombe, 106, 207 
Sloman, 64, 113 
Sloper, 41 
Slow, 113 
Slowley, 113 
Sly, 210 
Smale, 41 ' 
Smelt, 226 
Smith, 18 
Smithson, 147 
Smoker, 41 
Smythe, 28 
Snape, 114 
Snell, 74, 210 
Snooks, 141 
Snowdon, 115 
Soar, 215 
Sole, 116 
Somers, 90 
Somerville, 139 


Sonncnschein, 55 
Soper, 153 
Sorrel, 215 
Sotheran, 97 
Souter, 23, 151 
Sowerbutts, 156 
Spalding, 71 
Sparhawk, 75, 221 
Spark, 12, 75, 221 
Sparks, 221 
Speight, 219 
Speke, 219 
Speller, 187 
Spelman, 187 
Spence, 134, 1S6 
Spencer, 33, 186 
Speyer, 55 
Spicer, 2, 152 
Spick, 219 
Spiller, 187 
Spillman, 187 
Spilsbury, 40 
Spink, 40 
Spittle, 34 
Spittlehouse, 34, 131 
Spooner, 172 
Spragg, 212 
Spratt, 227 
Spring, 22, 90, 104 
Springett, 193 
Sprott, 227 
Spry, 212 
Spurling, 226 
Spurr, 136 
Squire, 33 
Stables, 134 
Stace, 18 
Stacey, 18, 33 
Stagg, 135 
Stainer, 21 
Staines, 108 
Stamford, 117 
Stamp, 100 
Stanford, 117 
Stanger, 175 
Stangrave, no 
Stanhope, 108 
Stanier, 21 
Stanton, ro8 
Staple, 123 
Stapleton, 123 
Stark, 211 
Starling, 219 
Starr, 136, 219 
Stead, 18, 122 
Steer, 212 
Stelfox, 225 
Stennett, 87 
Stenson, 30 
Sterling, 97 
Stewart, 180 


Stiggins, 12, 23, 77 
Stimpson, 87 
Stobart, 178 
Stock, 122 
Stodart, 178 
Stoer, 226 
Stoke, 122 
Stone, 108 
Stopford, 99 
Storm, 224 
Storr, 212 
Stott, 222 
Stout, 209 
Stow, 122 
Strafford, 117 
Straker, 175 
Strang, 31 
Strange, 12 
Strangeways, 7 
Stratford, 117 
Stratton, 127 
Straw, 155 
Streatfeild, 29, 112 
Stredwick, 127 
Street, 97, 104, 120, 

Stretton, 127 
Strickland, 37 
Stringer, 169 
Strode, no 
Stroud, no 
Struthers, no 
Stuart, 180 
Stubbs, 11, 105 
Studdart, 179 
Sturdee, 209 
Sturdy, 209 
Sturgeon, 226 
Sturgess, 40 
Sturm, 224 
Stutfield, 139 
Stutter, 179 
Such, 11 
Suckling, 195 
Sugar, 12 
Sugden, 48 
Sugg, 222 
Sully, 30 
Summer, 90 
Summerfield, 139 
Sumner, 163 
Sumpter, 187 
Sure, 151 
Surtees, 104 
Sutcliffe, 108 
Sutor, 23, 105 »., 151 
Suttle, 16, 29 
Swain, 10, 177, 222 
Swann, 135 
Sweet, 74 
Swindell, 106 

Swingler, 170 
Swire, 162 
Sword, 136 
Swyer, 162 
Sykes, 115 
Symons, 29 
Synyer, 145 

Taberer, 155 
Tabernacle, 131 
Tabor, 155 
Tacey, 40 
Taddy, 84 
Taggy, 84 
Tait, 25, 75, 76 
Talbot, 224 
Tallboys, 205 
Tallis, 141 
Tamson, 31 
Tangye, 88 
Tankard, 12 
Tarbutt, 227 
Tardif, 207 
Targett, 227 
Tarleton, 123 
Tasker, 177 
Tassell, 221 
Tate, 25, 75 
Taylor, 43, 153 
Tebb, 4, 58 
Tebbitt, 4 
Tedder, 178 
Tedman, 16, 34 
Tegg, 223 
Teler, 44 
Telfer, 206 
Teller, 44 
Tellwright, 44 
Tempest, 224 
Temple, 131 
Templeman, 131 
Tennant, 146 
Tennyson, 14 
Terrell, 72 
Terriss, 81 
Terry, 81 
TSte, 126 
Teufcl, 86 
Textor, 148 n. 
Thacker, 173 
Thackeray, 127 
Thomas, 46 
Thompson, 24, 35, 47 
Thoreau, 5 
Thornber, 122 
Thorne, 119 
Thorold, 72 
Thoroughgood, 73 
Thorp, 37, 122 
Thresher, 19 

Thripp, 40, 122 

Thrower, 187 

Thrupp, 37, 122 

Thunder, 224 

Thunichtgut, 204 

Thurkle, 39 

Thurtle, 39 

Thwaites, 105, in 

Thynne, 28 

Tibbald, 70 

Tibbies, 70, 95 

Tibbs, 4, 70 

Tickell, 39 

Tickner, 175 

Tidd, 75, 76, 87 

Tidmarsn, 113 

Tiffany, 89 

Tiffin, 89 

Tigg, 75 

Tighe, 113 

Till, 24, 93 

Tillett, 24, 93 

Tilley, 24, 93 

Tillman, 177 

Tillotson, 24, 93 

Tillson, 93 

Tilly, 93 

Timbs, no 

Tindall, 106 

Tinker, 174 

Tinkler, 174 

Tipler, 9 

Tipper, 153, 169 

Titchmarsh, 113 

Titheredge, 126 
Titmus, 219 
Tobin, 34 
Tod, 225 

Todhunter, 185, 225 
Toft, 108 
Toll, 62 
Toller, 185 
Tollett, 62 
Tolley, 34, 62 
Tombs, no 
Tomkins, 35 
Tomlin, 24 
Tompkins, 24, 35 
Tongue, 200 
Tonkins, 35 
Tonks, 35 
Tonson, 24 
Toogood, 204 
Tooke, 75 
Tooley, 34 
Toomer, 34 
Toon, 123 
Toosey, 18, 34 
Tootell, 106 
Tooth, 199 
Topliff, 108 


Torrens, 115 
Toulmin, 24, 37 
Tout, 40 
Tower, 21 
Towers, 100 
Towler, 185 
Town, 122 
Townroe, 128 
Townsend, 126 
Townson, 24, 125 
Tozer, 170 
TrancVevent, 205 
Tranter, 182 
Travers, 142 
Travis, 142 
Treadaway, 35 
Treasure, 155 
Treble, 14 
Tredgold, 206 
Tremble, 206 
Trent, 115 
Trethewy, 67 
Triggs, 75 
Trinder, 154 
Trinkwasser, 190 
Tripper, 179 
Tristram, 79 
Trollope, 108 
Troplong, 204 
Trotter, 185,' 201 
Troutbeck, 115 
Trower, 187 
Trumble, 206 
Trumbull, 206 
Tubb, 4 
Tubbs, 4 
Tuck, 75 
Tucker, 170 
Tudor, 87 
Tunder, 224 
Tupman, 179 
Tupper, 179 
Turberville, 139 
Turbot, 73, 227 
Turnbuck, 206 
Turnbull, 206 
Turner, 44, 148 
Turney, 47, 100 
Turpin, 80 
Turrell, 72 
Tuttle, 106 
Twaddell, 106 
Tweddell, 106 
Twells, 34 
Twelvetrees, 141 
Twentyman, 191 
Twiss, 128 
Twitchell, 128 
Twitchen, 128 
-Tyacke, 216 
Tyars, 98 n. 


Tyas, vi, 7, 98 
Tye, 113 
Tyers, 98 ». 
Tyler, 45, 153 
Tyrrell, 72 
Tyson, 32 

Ulyett, 73 
Underwood, 104 
Unwin, 75 
Upjohn, 67 
Usher, 184 

Vandepoerenboom, 119 

Vanner, 31 

Varden, 100 

Vardon, 100 

Varney, 142 

Vaughan, 48, 216 

Vavasour, 11 

Veal, 157, 223 

Veck, 33 

Veitch, 137 

Venables, 139 

Venn, 24 

Vennell, 128 

Venner, 31 

Venus, 83 

Verity, 197 

Verney, 142 

Vernon, 138 

Vesey, 137 

Vicars, 147 

Vicary, 165 

Vice, 197 

Vick, 33 I 

Vickers, 147 

Vidler, 31 

Vigers, 147 

Vigors, 147 

Villiers, 138 

Vince, 87 

Vincett, 87 

Vincey, 87 

Viney, 142 

Vingtain, 191 

Vinter, 41, 90 

Vipan, 138 

Vipont, 138 

Virgil, 83 

Virgin, 135 

Virgoe, 195 

Virtue, 197 

Vivian, 79 

Vizard, 72 

Vokes, 24, 61 

Vowle, 24 

Vowler, 24 

Voysey, 137 

Vye, 79 


Waddiiovc, 207 
Waddy, 75 
Wade, 75, 76, 117 
Wadman, 170 
Wadsworth, 123 
Wager, 177 
Waghorn, 204 
Wagstaff, 204 
Wait, 185 
Waldron, 81 
Walker, 44, 45, 170 
Wall, 125 
Waller, 105 
Wallis, 19, 97 
Wallnutt, 69 
Walrond, 81 
Walsh, 19, 97 
Walter, 69 
Walthew, 73 
Want, 197 
Ward, 45, 180 
Warden, 180 
Wardroper, 186 
Ware, 129 
Waring, 42, 80 
Warman, 73 
Warner, 81, r85 
Warnett, 80 
Warnum, 122 
Warr, 129, 197 
Warren, 80, 124 
Warrener, 185 
Wastall, 156 
Waterman, 3 
Watmough, 195 
Watson, 3 
Watt, 3 
Waugh, 125 
Way, 128 
Way man, 153 
Weale, in 
Weare, 129 
Weatherhead, 179, 227 
Webb, 148, 163 
Webber, 149 
Webster, 149 
Wedlake, 197 
Wedlock, 197 
Weech, 123 
Weight, 185 
Weightman, 153 
Weir, 129 
Weisspfennig, 202 
Welch, 19 
Weld, in 
Wellbeloved, 191 
Weller, 22 


Wellesley, 30 
Wells, 22 
Welsh, 97, 104 
Wenman, 178 
Went, 128 
Wesley, 30 
Westaway, 128 
Westray, 97 
Westrupp, 122 
Whale, 226 
Whalebelly, 226 
Wheatstone, 108 
Whichello, 220 
Whisker, 72 
Whitbread, 156 
White, 16, 47, 71, 214 
Whitelaw, 107 
Whiter, 149 
Whitfield, 112 
Whiting, 71 
Whitlock, 198 
Whitster, 149 
Whittaker, 112 
Whittier, 21 
Wich, 116 
Wick, 116, 123 
Widdows, 92 
Widdowson, 92 
Wigg, 57, 74 
Wiggins, 12 
Wight, 16, 214 
Wilkes, 38 
Wilkin, 63 
Will, 63 
Willard, 73 
Willcocks, 65 
Willett, 63 
William, 63 
Williams, 43, 63 
Williamson, 63 
Willows, 105 
Wills, 63 
Willsher, 99 
Willy, 63 
Wilmot, 59 
Wilson, 22, 47, 63 
Winbolt, 69 
Winch, 129 
Windebank, 105 
Windle, 39 
Windus, 152 
Winfrey, 73 
Winkle, vi 
Winship, 204 
Winspeare, 204 
Winstanley, 69 
Winston, 69 

Winter, 41. 9° 
Winthrop, " 2 
Wisdom, 197 
Wishart, 72 _ Tnn 
Wolf, 17, 55, 7i, 190 
Wolmer, 73 
Wolsey, 69 
Wong, H4 
Wontner, 197 
Wood, 45, I0 9 
Woodall, 219 
Woodard, 180 
Woodger, 14 8 
Woodhead, 126 
Woodhouse, 132 
Woodroffe, 181 
Woodruff, 181 
Woodyer, 148 ». 
Woollard, 198 
Woollett, 73 
Woolridge, 73 
Woosnam, 30 
Wooster, 19 
Worster, 19 
Worth, 132 
Wragg, 77 
Wray, 29, 127 
Wright, 18, 44 
Wrightson, 147 
Wyatt, 63 
Wyberd, 73 
Wyche, 123 
Wyclif, 108 
Wykes, 127 
Wyllie, 28 
Wyman, 64, 73 
Wynd, 128 
Wyndham, 31 
Wynne, 15, 216 
Wynyard, 124 
Wythe, 117 

Yarde, 124 
Yates, 124 
Yeatman, 124 
Yeats, 124 
Yeo, 118 
Yeoman, 162 
Young, 17, 47 
Youngmau, 64 
Yule, 89 

Zouch, n 
Zuckertort, 150 
Zwanziger, 191 

Printed by Hazell, Watson & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury, England,